The Origins of Love & Violence: An Overview

by James W. Prescott, Ph.D.

28 March 2002

Evolutionary Mammalian Biology Betrayed
Bowlby/Montagu and Attachment v Watson/Holt and non-Attachment.
NICHD Studies Document Impaired Brain Development With Loss of Mother Love
NICHD Early Child Day Care Study
Past Is Prologue--Report to the President. 1970 White House Conference on Children
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

This past century can be considered the Century of Violence where more humans have destroyed each other than in any other time in human history. This new Century was shocked into its existence when two airplane bombs were crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Century by Islamic religious extremists that destroyed those twin towers with the loss of over 3,000 lives and which left over 10,000 children without a mother or father. The terrorism of religious violence is unique to the human primate and came into existence with the birth of monotheism, as Gibbon (1776-1788) noted in The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. The polytheistic cultures of antiquity never went to war over religion, according to Gibbon. Although, monotheistic religious violence is a secondary factor in the genesis of human violence, it will be shown how the monotheistic religious moral values of pain and pleasure in human relationships have shaped the developing brain of humanity for depression, social alienation, anger/rage and violence.

The human primate is, without question, the most violent primate on the planet who directs more violence against the female and offspring of its species than by any other primate species on the planet. Why is our closest genetic relative the bonobo or pygmy chimpanzee the most peaceful and affectionate primate on the planet? There is only about 1% genetic difference (DNA) between these two species where this small genetic difference cannot possibly account for the extraordinary differences in peaceful and violent behaviors between these two primate species. The explanation for the pathological violence of the human primate lies elsewhere and recent studies reveal that the answer is to be found in how the developing brain is encoded or programmed for peaceful or violent behaviors in the newborn/infant/child by how it is reared.

Sarah Hardy in Mother Nature (1999) observed that "no wild monkey or ape mother has ever been observed to deliberately harm her own baby". Why does the human primate harm its own offspring when no genes can be identified to account for this harm nor for the current epidemics of violence that have grown over this past generation which precludes any changes in the human gene pool to account for this difference (Prescott, 2001 ab).

The answer to this question is to be found in the betrayal of millions of years of mammalian evolutionary biology by the human primate. This betrayal has two significant components:

a) how human infants/children are not nurtured which equates with the lack of affectional somatic bonding in the mother-infant/child relationship; and

b) suppression of the normal development of sexual affectional bonds during the post puberty years that exists for all mammals except for the human mammal.

It will be shown that it is the impaired development of the pleasure systems of the brain that results from failed affectional bonding in the mother-infant/child relationship and in the failed sexual affectional bonding during the juvenile/adolescent stages of development, which have placed the human primate on a life path for depression, social alienation and violence. Tragically, the moral traditions of the monotheistic religions have contributed significantly to this life path of self-destruction in homo sapiens where pain and suffering (biological avoidance) has become a virtue; and pleasure (biological attraction) has become a sin that must be avoided. This moral theology has wrecked havoc with the natural and normal integrative bio-psychological development of homo sapiens, which has resulted in the development of the neurodissociative brain that mediates the neurodissociative behaviors of depression, alienation and violence.

The basic reciprocal inhibitory relationship in the brain between pain and pleasure, between peace and violence must be recognized as fundamental neurobiological and neuropsychological processes that have been developed through millions of years of mammalian evolutionary biology that regulate peaceful and violent behaviors.

Evolutionary Mammalian Biology Betrayed
No mammal on this planet, except the human mammal, separates the newborn from its mother at birth and during the crucial and formative postnatal period of brain-behavioral development. No mammal on this planet, except the human mammal, refuses to breastfeed its newborn and during the crucial and formative periods of breastfeeding for brain-behavioral development that varies with mammalian species. The violation of these two mammalian universals by the human primate-homo sapiens-has brought devastating consequences upon itself in terms of damaged biological and emotional-social health that threatens the very existence of the species.

It is worth noting that the bonobo chimpanzee, which is the most peaceful primate on the planet, breastfeed their young to about four years of age; the mother carries her offspring on her body through early adolescence (particularly male offspring); and where multiple male/female sexual relationships are commonplace which are characterized by the lack of aggression or violence (Diamond, 1992; De Waal and Lanting, 1997, Prescott, 2001).

Newman (1995) has summarized the essential role of breastfeeding for healthy human development where WHO/UNICEF (1990) have recommended breastfeeding for "two years of age or beyond" that, inexplicably, is not supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, 1997). Laudenslager, et al. (1982) have documented impaired immune system development from mother-infant separations (includes lack of breastfeeding). We shall see that breastfeeding of the human primate for 2.5 years or greater is essential to optimize the health benefits (biological and psychosocial) of breastfeeding for child and mother.

Bowlby/Montagu and Attachment v Watson/Holt and non-Attachment.
There is a long history of warnings from child and human development authorities on the dangers inherent in separating infants from their mothers. Bowlby (1950), in a report on Maternal Care and Mental Health and in Child Care and the Growth of Love (1951) to the World Health Organization (WHO) warned the world of the consequences of increasing mother-infant/child separations associated with institutional child day care:

"Deprived children, whether in their own homes or out of them, are the source of social infection as real and serious as are the carriers of diphtheria and typhoid."

"The break-up of families and the shunting of illegitimates are accepted without comment."

"One must beware of a vested interest in the institutional care of children."

Renee Spitz (1946/1965) documented that infants isolated in cribs with little or no physical contact and physical affection can die from an emotional wasting away, which he called marasmus, even though medical and physical care were normal. Montagu (1971) has provided a history of two national historical sources that have opposed bonding in the mother-infant/child relationship and which established wrongful child rearing practices in America for this past century and which continues to this day.

Watson (1928) in his book Psychological Care of Infant and Child stated: "…a sensible way of treating children…Never hug and kiss them, never let them sit on your lap. If you must, kiss them once on the forehead when they say good night."

Luther Emmett Holt (1894), the leading pediatric authority of his day, stated in his textbook: "To induce sleep, rocking and all other habits of this sort are useless and may be harmful"; and later in 1916 advised that the crib should not rock in order that "the unnecessary and vicious practice may not be carried on". Holt could not have been in greater error, as we now know that gentle rocking (movement) of the infant/child is essential for normal brain-behavioral development and bonding. See, which was premiered at the 1970 White House Conference on Children.

Liedloff (1975) has documented the importance of baby carrying and affectional bonding between mother and infant/child in her single culture study. Joseph Chilton Pearce reinforced the significance of bonding in Magical Child (1977):

"Bonding is the issue, regardless of age. Bonding is a psychological-biological state, a vital physical link that coordinates and unifies the entire biological system. Bonding seals a primary knowing that is the basis for rational thought."

Cook (1996) has provided a review of how infants and nations are placed at risk with early child institutional care that ensures lack of bonding. For over a century we have been given wrongful and disastrous advice by "authorities" in pediatrics and psychology that continues to this day. Ferber (1985), a pediatrician, states:

"If your child is like this, you may be comforted to know that headbanging, body rocking, and head rolling are very common in early childhood and, at least at this age, are usually normal. If your child exhibits any of these behaviors there is little need for concern about emotional difficulties or neurological illness" p.193; and "In the infant and young toddler, rhythmic patterns are of little significance and you will not need to intervene" (p.197).

Dr. Ferber could not be in greater error and his statements indicate that it is imperative that all pediatricians be required to view the Time Life documentary, "Rock a Bye Baby" and the other video documentaries which document the inherent pathology of body rocking and other stereotypical behaviors consequent to the sensory deprivation of mother love (SSAD). These video documentaries are available here.

Spock (1972), and Ferber (1985) have advocated letting the infant/child engage in pathological chronic crying, e.g., crying itself to sleep, that has pathological consequences of extreme adreno-cortical stress reactions that adversely affect brain-behavioral development (Selye, 1956; Prescott, 2001). Another commentary by Dr. Ferber is so egregious that it also deserves reporting:

"A normal child will not injure himself seriously while headbanging, although he occasionally may bruise his forehead and, very rarely, there may be a small amount of bleeding. Concussions, fractured skull, or brain injuries just do not occur. The main damage is to furniture and walls" (p.198).

It is beyond comprehension to understand how forces so great that damages furniture and walls do not damage the immature developing brain. Microlesions of the brain that cannot be detected today can have long term developmental brain consequences years later, as the studies of Faro and Windle (1969) have demonstrated on the effects of birth asphyxia upon the developing brain.

The award-winning Time-Life documentary, Rock a Bye Baby, that was premiered at the 1970 White House Conference on Children, dramatizes NICHD supported research findings of impaired brain-behavioral development with mother-infant separations and the necessity of body movement and rocking of the newborn/infant for normal brain-behavioral development. The classic studies by Mason (1968) and Mason and Berkson (1975), which demonstrated that artificial movement by a swinging mother surrogate could prevent depression and violence in the separated infant, is required viewing by all who have an interest in optimizing healthy development of the newborn/infant/child and can be viewed at:

It is well known that early life experiences have a profound effect upon brain-behavioral development, which has been demonstrated from a rich variety of both animal and human studies. The studies of Salk, et al (1985) found prenatal and perinatal stress factors in 81% of teen suicides and the Jacobson group in Sweden (Jacobson, et al, 1987, 1988, 1990, 1998/2000) found increased risks for homicide, suicide and drug addictions in adulthood-- as a consequence of obstetrical medication (and other perinatal traumas)-which were as high as 500% compared to control groups with no obstetrical medications. These studies illustrate how critical early life experiences effect life-long developmental consequences upon the brain and behavior and that true prevention must begin before birth and during the formative postnatal periods of brain-behavioral development.

NICHD Studies Document Impaired Brain Development With Loss of Mother Love
When Dr. Prescott joined the newly formed National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), NIH he formed the Developmental Behavioral Biology Program and became its Health Scientist Administrator from 1966-1980. A major focus of this NICHD research program was to understand why depression and violence results from maternal-infant/child separations. Caspar Weinberger, then Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare-DHEW (renamed the Department of Health and Human Services-DHHS), directed the NICHD to expand its studies to uncover the origins of child abuse and neglect and of violence in the home.

As a developmental neuropsychologist and cross-cultural psychologist, Dr. Prescott focused the NICHD program efforts on developing research programs to understand how loss of early maternal-infant bonding-- as sensory deprivation of somatic maternal love and nurturing-- affects the developing primate brain that could account for the pathologies of depression and violence that results from such early separations.

In a number of NICHD supported studies with other scientists, a number and variety of developmental brain disorders were found in pathologically violent adult mother deprived monkeys who had a history of depression and psychotic behaviors. Dr. Prescott formulated the S-SAD (SomatoSensory Affectional Deprivation) theory of brain function that could account for these emotional-social behavioral disorders which included the limbic-fronto-cerebellar complex in mediating peaceful and violent behaviors. A number of studies have confirmed the validity of this theory. See

In a series of NICHD supported cross-cultural studies, Dr. Prescott found that he could predict with 80% accuracy the peaceful or homicidal violent nature of 49 tribal cultures from a single measure of bonding in the mother-infant relationship, namely, carrying of the infant throughout the day on the body of mother/allomother through the first year of life. The peaceful or violent nature of the remaining ten cultures could be accurately predicted from whether the culture permitted or punished youth sexual affectional relationships. In brief, these two variables of physical affectional bonding could predict with 100% accuracy the peaceful or violent nature of these 49 tribal cultures distributed throughout the world (Prescott, 1975,1979,1996). Crocker and Crocker (1994) have provided a detailed analysis of the vanishing matrilineal Canela tribe of the Brazil Amazon that dramatizes the relationship of high infant/child nurturance and support of youth and adult sexual affectional expression with non-violence.

In a series of subsequent cross-cultural tribal studies, Dr. Prescott found that 77% of 26 tribal cultures whose weaning age was 2.5 years or longer were rated low or absent in suicidal violence. Further, he found significant differences in suicidal behaviors between cultures with weaning age of 2.0 years or less v 2.5 years or greater. This finding suggests that a critical period of brain development exists at this age to mediate this effect. These and other data suggest that breastfeeding for 2.5 years or longer is required to optimize the health benefits of breastfeeding for child and mother (Zheng, 2000). These breastfeeding effects are undoubtedly mediated, in large part, by the rich presence of the amino acid tryptophan in breastmilk that is deficient in infant formula milk and which is necessary for normal brain serotonin development. See Table 2. Deficits in brain serotonin are well recognized as a brain condition that mediates depression, impulse dyscontrol and the violence of suicide and homicide (Prescott, 1996,1997, 2001). 

This issue of duration of breastfeeding for optimal biological and mental-social health is particularly urgent when it is recognized that only 6.8% of American mothers are breastfeeding at 12 months; 2.7% are breastfeeding at 24months; and only 1% at 30 months or more (Hediger, 2001; Prescott, 2001). These statistics on breastfeeding become even more alarming in the light of child and youth suicidal deaths which have doubled in the 5-14 year age group over this past generation and has been the third leading cause of death in the 15-24 year age group over this past generation. Further, for the 5-14 year age group the ratio of suicide rates to homicide rates have consistently increased over this past generation, as follows: 1979--36 %; 1994--60%; 1998--73%. It is also a sobering statistic to note that more children and youth (5-24 year age group) have died from suicidal death in the past ten years (est 55,000) than combat lives lost during the ten year Vietnam War (47, 355). Yet, no memorial has been established for these children of suicidal death.

It should be noted that the American Academy of Pediatrics in its 1997 revision of its breastfeeding recommendations did not acknowledge the research studies that confirmed tryptophan deficits in infant formula milk which compromises normal brain development and places infants/children at high risk for the development of depression, impulse dyscontrol, drug abuse and suicidal/ homicidal violence. Further and inexplicably, the AAP did not affirm the recommendations of WHO and UNICEF that breastfeeding should be for "two years of age or beyond" (AAP, 1997; WHO/UNICEF, 1990). What does WHO and UNICEF know that the AAP does not know?

These data demand studies to evaluate the harmful effects of infant formula milk upon brain development and behavior compared to breastfeeding for "two years of age or beyond" and to evaluate the history of duration of breastfeeding in child and youth suicides and those with a history of depression and psychiatric medication. The NIH, inexplicably, refuses to conduct these studies.

NICHD Early Child Day Care Study
The report of the NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Study of Early Child Care (SECC) found that infants and very young children who spend more than 30 hours a week in child care "are far more demanding, more noncompliant, and they are more aggressive" and "They scored higher on things like gets in lots of fights, cruelty, bullying, meanness as well as talking too much, demands must be met immediately", according to Dr.Belsky, one of the principle investigators" (Stolberg, New York Times, April 19, 2001) (emphasis mine)

Dr. Sarah Friedman, NICHD Scientific Project Officer was reported as saying ""We cannot and should not hide the findings but I don't want to create a mass hysteria when I don't know what explains these results" (Stolberg, 2001). Unfortunately, no measures of biological stress disorders were incorporated into this study nor was there any awareness of the early NICHD studies in the 1960s and 1970s, which documented these behaviors in the maternally deprived young.

It has yet to be recognized that cruelty, bullying and meanness that terrorizes so many of our children and youth in our elementary schools and high schools have their roots in the emotional trauma of mother-infant/child separations associated with institutionalized day care and from other separations. These collective emotional-social traumas are sufficiently great to establish an unstable brain that combined with other stress experiences compels many students to despair and the violent acts of homicide and suicide. It is estimated that some 20% of our nation's students have contemplated suicide at one time or another (Moran, 2000; Silverman, et al 200l; Prescott, 2001). What is wrong with America and American families that drive so many of our youth to depression, despair and suicide?

Belsky (2001), a member of the research team of the NICHD-SECC, has published his most recent findings and conclusions regarding the damaging emotional-social effects of infant and early child day care.

Evidence indicating that early, extensive, and continuous nonmaternal care is associated with less harmonious parent-child relations and elevated levels of aggression and noncompliance suggest that concerns raised about early and extensive child care 15 years ago remain valid and that alternative explanations of Belsky's originally-controversial conclusion do not account for seemingly adverse effects of routine nonmaternal care that continue to be reported in the literature. (Abstract)… Ultimately, hard headed work is called for to gain insight into the developmental mechanisms that give rise to the aggressive and noncompliant behavior so often found to be related to early, extensive, and continuous nonmaternal child care. For sure the road does not end with the NICHD-SECC (p.35, ms, emphasis mine).

Unfortunately, the road that gained insight into the developmental mechanisms that mediate the aggressive, noncompliant and other disordered emotional-social behaviors, e.g. depression and suicide consequent to mother-infant/child separations-- which was illuminated by the Time Life documentary "Rock a Bye Baby"-- was blocked and terminated by the NICHD in the late 1970s. The NICHD unlawfully abandoned its agency responsibility to continue to support research on the causes and consequences of violence against children and failed to recommend implementation of national health programs for the prevention of this violence. These unlawful NICHD/NIH actions has not only set-back scientific advances in this field for over a quarter of a century but more importantly has resulted in the epidemics of depression, drug abuse, psychiatric medications and violence that characterizes this nation today with a substantial loss of child and youth life due to suicidal and homicidal deaths that are mostly preventable. 

Past Is Prologue--Report to the President. 1970 White House Conference on Children
Never has this White House Conference come at a time of greater national questioning…The Conference can and will define problems, seek new knowledge, evaluate past successes and failures, and outline alternative courses of action.
                                                                     President Richard M. Nixon, December 5, 1969

Minority Report of Forum 15. Chairman, Urie Bronfenbrenner.

I take issue with the accompanying document on two major counts.
First, the report, in my judgement fails to convey the urgency and severity of the problem confronting the nation's families and their children. Second, the document underestimates and consequently fails to alert the reader to the critical role played by business and industry--both private and public--in determining the life style of the American family and the manner in which parent and children are treated in American society. I shall speak to each of these points in turn….(and) America's families, and their children, are in trouble, trouble so deep and pervasive as to threaten the future of our nation. The source of the trouble is nothing less than a national neglect of children and those primarily engaged in their care--America's parents. (and) The Editorial Committee objected to this statement on the grounds that it applied only to a minority of the nation's children and that, therefore, no note of urgency was justified. I strongly disagree (p. 252) (Hess, 1970)

It is transparent that the 1970 White House Conference on Children was a failure, as the prescient words of Professor Urie Bronfenbrenner attest. The children, youth and families of America are worse off today-- by any health statistic-- than they were in 1970-over thirty years ago. This massive failure of America can be laid at the doorsteps of the Congress and its political parties; The White House; the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Services, which over this past generation have failed to support mothers being nurturing mothers and which continues to this day. America has truly lost it's dream of "…Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness". The disintegration of America from within is well on its way.

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
The realization of peaceful and harmonious behaviors at the individual and cultural level can only be obtained with a neurointegrative brain and not with a neurodissociative brain. These two brains are formed through the developmental sensory processes of pleasure stimulation or pleasure deprivation that is mediated first through the mother-infant/child pleasure bonding relationship or its absence. Sexual affectional bonding relationships during puberty/postpubertal development builds upon this first foundation of love in the mother-infant/child relationship that also promotes peaceful, harmonious and egalitarian relationships. Integrated pleasure but not dissociative pleasure inhibits depression and violence. Dissociative pleasure leads to sexual exploitation and violence, particularly child and teen sexual abuse. It would be a rare event to find any rapist or other sex offender, murderer or drug addict that has been breast fed for 2.5 years or longer in any culture and who have realized youth sexual affectional relationships.

A radical transformation is needed of the philosophical dualistic and theistic theologies of "Western Civilization" that have mandated and supported gender inequality with the subversion and violation of millions of years of mammalian evolutionary biology concerning the role of pain and pleasure in mammalian relationships, particularly human primate relationships.

The four primary life changes that are required to transform the individual and culture from one of authoritarianism and violence to one of egalitarian and peaceful relationships are:

1. Society must support mothers being nurturing mothers that includes breastfeeding for 2.5 years or greater.

2. Society must support mothers (and fathers) in being nurturing parents by supporting the continuous carrying of the infant on the body of mother/father throughout the day during the first year of life.

3. All forms of intentional infliction of physical/emotional pain and punishment must be eliminated from the life of the infant/child that begins in many infants with circumcision.

4. Society must support the emerging sexuality of children and youth and support them in the natural expression of their inherent sexuality that is free from exploitation and punishment.

Implementation of the Ten Principles would provide a greater comprehensive structure for the assurance of peaceful individuals and cultures (Table 1). In light of the above and other evidence, it is difficult to comprehend that maternal-infant bonding is considered a fiction (Eyre, 1992) and that mother nurture is of lesser importance than peer groups for child and human development (Harris, 1998).

It is with some alarm to note than none of the above NICHD/NIH history of research studies and scientific breakthroughs made in the 1960s and 1970s have been referenced in the report of the National Research Council, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development (Shonkoff and Phillips, 2000). See also, 1993) nor in the "Report of the Panel on NIH Research on Antisocial, Aggressive, and Violence-Related Behaviors and their Consequences", Panel Meetings in June and September 1993, published April 1994 at

It is inexplicable that the scientific reports from the offices of the DHHS Surgeon General; National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; and National Academy of Sciences are silent on this rich NICHD developmental scientific data that are relevant to the prevention of the brain-behavioral disorders induced by child abuse and neglect (S-SAD) and which contribute to later suicidal and homicidal behaviors. (NIH, 1994; Overpeck, et al, 1998; Surgeon General Satcher, 1999ab, 2000; NRC, 1993ab).

Further, it is again emphasized that the failure of the American Academy of Pediatrics to note in its revised statement on breastfeeding (AAP, 1997) the many studies that document deficiencies of the essential amino acid tryptophan in infant formula milk that compromises normal brain serotonin development and which induces depression, impulse dyscontrol and violence is also inexplicable (Prescott, 1996, 2001). 
See Table 2 and

It is also extremely doubtful, given the documented deficiencies of tryptophan in infant formula milk, that such a commercial preparation meets the magnitude of requirements of the other essential amino acids for infants that have been established by WHO. Table 2 lists the infant requirements for the essential amino acids compared to adult requirements (Merck Manual 1987). The damaging effects of such nutritional deficiencies in infant formula milk upon the developing brain, specifically brain neurotransmitters, have yet to be evaluated. The recent authorization by the FDA to provide the nutritional additives of two fatty acids, DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) and AA (Arachidonic Acid)-essential nutrients for brain development-to infant formula milk attests to the additional recognition that infant formula milk is malnutrition for normal brain development (Cunnane,, 2000; Brody, 2001).

Clearly, life has deteriorated for America's children and youth since the 1970 White House Conference on Children. A radical reconstruction of American Society is needed that must give support to mothers being nurturing mothers which includes support of breastfeeding for 2.5 years or longer that is in accordance with the recommendations of WHO and UNICEF. Duration of breastfeeding for 2.5 years or greater appears to be necessary to optimize brain development and the health benefits of breastfeeding, if a life path of depression, alienation, drug abuse and the violence of suicidal and homicidal deaths of our children and youth are to be significantly reduced and prevented.

It is imperative that national legislation, which interferes with mother-infant/child bonding, is abolished and those nursing mothers are exempt from the 1996 Welfare Reform Act which prevents breastfeeding and bonding between mother and infant/child. Infant and early institutional child day care should be abolished where the public funds utilized to support these commercial enterprises are used to support mothers being nurturing mothers.

The greatest terror a child can have is that he is not loved, and rejection is the hell he fears. I think everyone in the world to a large or small extent has felt rejection. And with rejection comes anger, and with anger some kind of crime in revenge for the rejection, and with the crime guilt--and there is the story of mankind.
                                                                                     John, Steinbeck--East of Eden, 1952




I. Every Pregnancy Is A Wanted Pregnancy. Every Child Is A Wanted Child.
Unwanted children are typically unloved, abused and neglected who become the next
generation of delinquents, violent offenders and alcohol/drug abusers and addicts.

II. Every Pregnancy Has Proper Nutrition & Prenatal Care--medical and psychological -- and is free from alcohol, drugs, tobacco and other harmful agents of stress.

III. Natural Birthing--avoid wherever possible obstetrical medications, forceps & induced labor with no episiotomy nor premature cutting of umbilical cord. Mother controls birthing position with no separation of newborn from mother. Newborn maintains intimate body contact with mother for breastfeeding and nurturance.

IV. No Circumcision of newborn. The traumatic pain of newborn circumcision adversely affects normal brain development, impairs affectional bonding with mother and has long lasting effects upon how pain and pleasure are experienced in life.

V. Breastfeeding On Demand by newborn/infant/child and for "two years or beyond", as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Failure to breastfeed results in positive harm to normal brain development & to the immunological health of the newborn, infant and child. Encoding the developing brain with the smell of mother's body through breastfeeding is essential for the later development of intimate sexuality.

VI. Intimate Body Contact is maintained between mother and newborn/infant by being carried continuously on the body of the mother for the first year of life. Such continuous gentle body movement stimulation of the newborn/infant promotes optimal brain development and "Basic Trust" for peaceful/happy behaviors. Mother-infant co-sleeping is encouraged for "two years or beyond". Mother-infant/child body contact can also be optimized with daily infant/child massage. The Father must also learn to affectionately bond with his infant and child by being an additional source of physical affection.

VII. Immediate Comforting is given to infants and children who are crying. No infant/child should ever be permitted to cry itself to sleep.

VIII. Infants and Children Are For Hugging and should never be physically hit for any reason. Merging childhood parental love with parental violent pain helps create adult violent love.

IX. Infants and Children Are Honored and should never be humiliated nor emotionally abused for any reason. The emerging sexuality of every child is respected.

X. Mothers Must Be Honored and not replaced by Institutional Day Care which emotionally harms children before three years of age. Mother-Infant/Child Community Development Centers must replace Institutionalized Day Care.


Amino Acid  Adult   Infant  % Adult   Child


16 26   163  19


13 46 354 28


19 93 489 44


16 66 247 44


17 42 235 22

Phenylalanine & Tyrosine

19  72  379 22


09 43 478 28


05 17 340 09


13 56 431 25

FROM: The Merck Manual. Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders. P. 920. Fifteenth Edition.1987. Merck & Co., Inc. Rathway, NJ Infant percent value of adult requirements were calculated and added to Table.

Modified from Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series No. 724. Copyright 1985 by FAO AND WHO

Fazzolari-Nesci, A., Domianello, D., Sotera, V. and Raiha, N.C. (1992). Tryptophan fortification of adapted formula increases plasma tryptophan concentrations to levels not different from those found in breast-fed infants. J. Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. May. 14(4): 456-459.

Hanning, R.M., Paes, B., Atkinson, S.A. (1992). Protein metabolism and growth of term infants in response to a reduced-protein, 40:60 whey: casein formula with added tryptophan.  Amer. J. Clinical Nutrition. December 56(6):1004-11.

Kamimura, S., Eguchi, K., Sekiba, K. (1991). Tryptophan and its metabolite concentrations in human plasma and breast milk during the perinatal period. Acta Medica Okayama. April 45(2):101-106.

Lanting, D.I., Fidler, V. Huisman, M., Touwen, B.C., Boersma, E.R. (1994). Neurological differences between 9-year old children fed breast-milk or formula-milk as babies. (1994).  Lancet. Nov 12 344(8933):1319-22.

Neuringer, M. (1993). Cerebral cortex docosahexaenoic acid is lower in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants. Nutrition Reviews. August 51(8):238-41.

Newman, J. (1995). How Breast Milk Protects Newborns. Scientific American. December.

Selected References

AAP (1997). Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk (RE9729) Pediatrics 100(6).

Belsky, J. (2002). Developmental Risks (Still) Associated with Early Child Care. J. 
    Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
42: 845-860.

Bowlby, J. (1953). Child Care and the Growth of Love. Pelican/Penguin. Baltimore/London.

Brody, J.E. (2001). A Human Touch Is Added to Infant Formulas. The New York Times. July 17.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1970). Report to the President. The 1970 White House Conference on     Children. (Stephen Hess, National Chairman). U.S. Superintendent of Documents.     Washington, DC.

Cook, P.S. (1996). Early Child Care: Infants & Nations At Risk. News Weekly Books Melbourne

Crocker, W. and Crocker, J. (1994). The Canela: Bonding Through Kinship, Ritual, and Sex.      New York: Harcourt Brace College.

Cunnane. S. C., Francescuttie. V., Brenna, J.T. and Cvrawford, M. A. (2000). Breast-Fed Infants     Achieve a Higher Rate of Brain and Whole Body Docosahexenoate Accumulation Than     Formula-Fed Infants Not Consuming Dietary Docosahexaenoate. Lipids 35(1) 105-111.

De Waal, F. and Lanting, F. (1997). Bonobo. The Forgotten Ape. University of California Press.     Berkeley

Dokecki, P.R. (1973). When the bough breaks...what will happen to baby. Review of:      Rock-a- bye Baby. Time Life Films (Lothar Wolff, Ex. Prod.) Contemporary Psychology.

Eyer, D.E. (1992). Mother-Infant Bonding. A Scientific Fiction. Yale University Press.   New Haven.

Faro,. M.D. and Windle, W.F. (1969). Transneuronal Degeneration in Brains of Monkeys     Asphyxiated at Birth. Experimental Neurology. 24:38-53.

Fazzolari-Nesci, A., Domianello, D., Sotera, V. and Raiha, N.C. (1992). Tryptophan fortification     of adapted formula increases plasma tryptophan concentrations to levels not different from     those found in breast-fed infants. J. Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. May. 14(4):

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