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The Dangers of Episiotomy

Incidentally, Victorian medicine was equally rapacious in its claims on female genitalia. The fact that FGM didn't follow MGM in becoming nearly universal in this country may be largely an accident of anatomy: the surgical risks are likely higher. Yet American medical journal articles proclaiming the benefits of clitorectomies persisted until at least the 1950's, and clitorectomies of minors were covered by Blue Cross-Blue Shield until 1977. (Surprisingly, the continuing western practice of episiotomy during childbirth, in the face of its iatrogenic "indications" and consequences, is not generally recognized as a form of FGM.) [2005] Male Circumcision in the USA: A Human Rights Primer by Rich Winkel