(a 50:50 mix of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T)
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'You ask what we were doing over there all those years: what it was all about? I'll tell you pure and simple: it was a noble cause.' -- Ronald Reagan
[Agent Orange is the code name for a herbicide,
(one of several defoliants used, the others were Agent Pink, Agent Blue and
Agent White, derived from the colour coding of the drums containing the
defoliants) used by the U.S. military in its Herbicidal Warfare program
during the Vietnam War, when an estimated 21,136,000 gal. of Agent Orange
were sprayed across South Vietnam. 4.8 million Vietnamese people were
exposed to Agent Orange, resulting in 400,000 deaths and disabilities, and
500,000 children born with birth defects.
Agent Orange was manufactured by Monsanto, Dow Chemicals (manufacturers of Napalm), Uniroyal, Hercules, Diamond Shamrock, Thompson Chemical and TH Agriculture. Monsanto were the main supplier. The Agent Orange produced by Monsanto had dioxin levels many times higher than that produced by Dow Chemicals, the other major supplier of Agent Orange to Vietnam.
Dioxins are one of the most toxic chemicals known to man. Permissible levels are measured in parts per trillion, the ideal level is zero. The Agent Orange manufactured by Monsanto contained 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD), extremely deadly even when measured against other dioxins. The levels found in domestic 2,4,5-T were around 0.05 ppm, that shipped to Vietnam peaked at 50 ppm, ie 1,000 times higher than the norm.
Operation Hades, later changed to Operation Ranch Hand, sprayed 6 million acres of forest in Vietnam, 19 million gallons of defoliant. The intention was to turn Vietnam into desert, to cause such destruction that Vietnam would never recover. The first and most immediate effect of Operation Ranch Hand was the loss of tree cover. Millions of acres of forest destroyed. It was only later that the carcinogenic and other effects began to emerge.
US service men, who at most only served a few months tour of duty, have suffered from cancers, skin disorders and liver disorders. In an out-of-court settlement in May 1984 the manufacturers wore forced to pay $180 million in damages for exposure to Agent Orange, little more than 'nuisance value'. Monsanto as the key defendant was forced by the presiding judge to contribute 45.5% of the total pay-out.]
AGENT ORANGE: Okinawa
[2011 July] U.S. Soldiers
‘Sprayed Agent Orange Across Korea’
“We were told, ‘It’s totally safe and it won’t hurt you at all,’” he
added. “We were told, ‘You can drink it, you can brush your teeth with it, or
you can bathe in it. It won’t hurt you. Those were lies.”
[2009 pdf] USMVP’s Petition to
Secretary Shinseki. Re: Petition for Presumptive Service-Connection for
Parkinson’s disease due to herbicide exposures
exposures to herbicides used in Vietnam
have a positive association with Parkinson’s disease in exposed Veterans.
[2009 pdf] USMVP’s Petition to Secretary Shinseki. Re: Petition for Presumptive Service-Connection for Parkinson’s disease due to herbicide exposures exposures to herbicides used in Vietnam have a positive association with Parkinson’s disease in exposed Veterans.
 'Last ghost' of the Vietnam War
[Nov 2004] Agent Orange Victims Sue Monsanto
 Vietnam: Agent Orange Still Killing After Three Decades An estimated 650,000 victims are suffering from chronic illnesses in Vietnam alone, and another 500,000 have already died, researchers say.
The Legacy of Agent Orange
Dow Brings Back An Agent Orange Ingredient for New GM Plants. "History is repeating itself before our eyes. Dow Chemicals and Monsanto, joined at the karmic hip, both manufactured Agent Orange for use in Vietnam, and both are notorious for minimizing the adverse health effects associated with exposure to the agent. Neither corporation learned from its mistakes, largely because the US government underwrote the risk of using the chemical, and therefore shielded them from the bulk of the legal and financial fallout."
Agent Orange Legacy
Occasionally I saw these [genetically deformed] children in contaminated villages in the Mekong Delta; and whenever I asked about them, people pointed to the sky; one man scratched in the dust a good likeness of a bulbous C-130 aircraft, spraying. -- John Pilger
Monsanto has in fact submitted false information to EPA which directly resulted in weakened regulations ... -- Cate Jenkins
Monsanto covered up the dioxin contamination of a wide range of its products. Monsanto either failed to report contamination, submitted false information purporting to show no contamination or submitted samples to to the government for analysis which had been specially prepared so that dioxin contamination did not exist. -- Cate Jenkins
We have over 50,000 children that have been born with horrific deformities; the link is clear. -- Vu Trong Huong, director War Crimes Investigation
These Agent Orange births are normal for us ... Every now and then we have what we call a foetal catastrophe - when the number of miscarriages and deformed babies, I am afraid to say, overwhelms us. -- Dr Pham Viet Thanh, Tu Du hospital
First sprayed in 1968, Mr. Vinh was plagued by muscular
and skeletal disorders. But after the war ended in 1975, his health deteriorated
rapidly. By 1994, he was paralyzed and spent six months in hospital, being fed
liquids through his nose. He recovered, but not enough to work on his rice farm.
Today, his voice is hoarse, he can't swallow solid food, his spine is numb and
often he is too weak to walk or even to turn over in bed.
Dioxin interferes with reproduction, so Mr. Vinh's nightmare swept up his children and grandchildren as well. One son is blind and mentally handicapped. Another is deaf. A third has spinal problems. One daughter is partly paralyzed, another mentally handicapped, the third chronically weak with children born blind.
Vietnam estimates 400,000 people were killed or maimed by the defoliants, 500,000 children have been born with defects from retardation to spina bifida and a further two million people have suffered cancers or other illnesses. Yet they have received no compensation from those who produced the chemicals and those who made them a weapon of war.  'Last ghost' of the Vietnam War
Quang Van Tuoi, a 65-year-old veteran of the Viet Cong, shows a small photo of his youngest daughter, born with deformed limbs and mental handicaps. Her eyes are glassy and unfocused, and her body is partly paralyzed. All five of his children, born from 1975 to 1994, have similar mental problems. “We kept hoping we would have a healthy child,” he says. “But they all suffered the same illness.”  'Last ghost' of the Vietnam War