Militarizing the Homeland
by: Dahr Jamail and Jason Coppola,
t r u t h o u t |
"... The game is typical of a recently emerging trend that has melded the video
game industry (and entertainment industries more broadly) with the US military
in a set of symbiotic relationships that literally immerse civilian gamers in a
virtual world of war while training soldiers using the hottest gaming technology
available. It's the creation of a digital cradle-to-grave concept in which games
created by or for the military are used as recruiting tools and also, as it
were, to pre-train youngsters. Then, when they are old enough to enlist, these
kids find themselves using video game-like controllers to pilot real military
vehicles and are taught tactics and are trained in strategy using specially
designed video games and commercially available, off-the-shelf games that have
been drafted into service by the military. That civilian-created, military-aided
training tool was then recycled into a civilian first-person shooter, rated 'T'
for "teen," with a marine on the game's packaging and a blurb that exclaims,
"Based on a training tool developed for the United States Marines."
"My very first recruiting officer was G.I. Joe," says Iraq war veteran Michael
Prysner, an Iraq war veteran who was an aerial intelligence specialist in the US
Award-winning journalist and Associate Editor of the Nation Institute's
Nick Turse writes in his
book "The Complex: How the Military Invades Our Everyday Lives": "As a product
of the 1980s G.I. Joe generation, I can attest to the seductive power of those
three inch action figures in selling the military to young boys."
In an interview with Truthout, Turse observed, "Only later would I learn just
how enmeshed G.I. Joe's manufacturer, Hasbro, was with the military. One
instance of this close association came to me in 2003 when the Department of
Defense shared the specifications for their
Future Force Warrior concept with the toy company, even before awarding the
contract to General Dynamics. More important to the military these days are its
ties to video game manufacturers. The latter turn tax-payer-funded combat
simulators into first-person shooters that, in effect, pre-train youngsters in
small-unit military tactics and irregular warfare."
Turse also talks of the Microsoft Xbox game "Close Combat:
to Fight," which was originally a training tool developed for the US Marine
Corps by civilian contractor
Destineer Studios. His book reveals that the game "was created under the
direction of more than 40 active-duty Marines, fresh from the frontlines of
combat in the Middle East [who] worked side-by-side with the development team to
put the exact tactics they used in combat into "First Fight." ...
"First to Fight" is but one of
many video games that the US military has availed itself of on an extensive
scale to indoctrinate, desensitize, dehumanize and ultimately recruit young
people into the vocation of legitimized violence in the name of heroism and
When veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan gathered at a Winter Soldier event to
share their stories and experiences in the occupations with the media,
Kristopher Goldsmith, who has served in Iraq, spoke to Truthout about what
influenced him as a youngster to want to join the military in order to kill
"It might sound crazy to anyone who is not a veteran, but video games and
movies, especially recent ones, make death and dismemberment seem like ordinary
things. You are desensitized to them. While growing up I used to think people at
the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) were crazy, trying to censor
violence and stuff like that... I was like 'Oh, well violence is real life,' but
there's a huge difference between witnessing first-hand any sort of violence and
sitting in a movie theater watching someone faking a death. Reality and
pretending are two way different things. It's disturbing. You can ask any combat
veteran, things like video games and cartoons like 'G.I. Joe,' dressing in
camouflage and running around in the woods, even being in the Boy Scouts
definitely makes children idolize soldiers ... and not idolize them for standing
up for their country but just for wearing the uniform and being a tough guy.
It's a sign of masculinity that a lot of young boys and young men want to
achieve, and they do it through the wrong way."
Goldsmith joined the military at 18, right after high school, wanting to go to
the front lines because, "I was still under the influence of the media and its
Terrorism paranoia, and seriously believed that somewhere in the deserts of Iraq
were thousands of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction)."
Goldsmith and Prysner are not alone in having responded favorably to the
powerful combined influence of the entertainment industry and corporate media.
There are innumerable others who have been lured into joining the military for
the promise of violence that it offers.
The process of brainwashing and desensitization by the military begins affecting
children in the US from a very early age. It is not insignificant that little
boys wear camouflage and run around playing with toy guns whenever they get an
Goldsmith also attributes his inclination towards violence to the Boy Scouts. A
story in The
New York Times describes the new Explorers program, a coeducational
affiliate of the Boy Scouts of America as "training thousands of young people in
skills used to confront terrorism, illegal immigration and escalating border
violence - an intense ratcheting up of one of the group's longtime missions to
prepare youths for more traditional jobs as police officers and firefighters."
Cathy Noriega, a 16-year-old girl in the program, was attracted by the
compressed-air guns the students use while training. "I like shooting them. I
like the sound they make. It gets me excited."
Officials involved in the program publicly claim, "This is about being a
true-blooded American guy and girl."
* * *
Another irresistible agent that the US military has deployed in its recruitment
and support drive is films. Turse elaborates the point, "In addition to toys and
video games, the military has also strengthened its ties to Hollywood in recent
years. Turning back to G.I. Joe, we can see this with the new movie: 'G.I. Joe:
The Rise of Cobra.' My understanding is that when the war in Iraq was going
especially poorly, and to make the movie more palatable for the global
marketplace, the fighting force in the movie was supposed to be an international
special ops team based in Europe. A negative response from American fans, and
undoubtedly the desire to use DoD (Department of Defense) assets - like vehicles
and bases - caused the studio to alter the script, apply for support and get a
Department of Defense adviser on the film. As result 'G.I. Joe: The Rise of
Cobra' joins a host of recent summer blockbusters, like both of the
'Transformers' movies and 'Iron Man,' for example, in selling the US military to
The list of Hollywood films that have helped the military garner wide support
from the American public for large-scale conflict is long. By glamorizing and
sentimentalizing warfare and camouflaging the truth behind unprovoked
aggression, these films have served their purpose well. To name a few of these,
we have: "Pearl Harbor," "Behind Enemy Lines," "Letters From Iwo Jima," "We Were
Soldiers," "Saving Private Ryan," "Black Hawk Down," "Clear and Present Danger,"
and a host of others. If one looks at Hollywood's history of films that
glamorize the US military, there are literally hundreds more.
At the time of entering WW I, the US established the Committee of Public
Information, to develop guidelines for the media to promote domestic support for
the war. In 1941, during WW II, there was a prolific production of war dramas
and documentaries to boost the American war effort by Hollywood studios in
association with the Pentagon. In 1948, the Pentagon established a special movie
liaison office. Producers and directors who are willing to adapt their movies to
Pentagon directives are given substantial financial and technical help, besides
ready access to important defense locales and resources. Less obliging
movie-makers are pointedly denied any assistance by the DoD. The objective is to
encourage movies that inspire youth and, therefore, boost recruitment and not
let negative portrayals of the army dissuade people from joining.
Turse writes in his book how this is done: "While the US military has long had a
relationship with Hollywood, the ad hoc arrangements of old are over. Today, the
air force operates
airforcehollywood.af.mil, the official Web site of the US Air Force
Entertainment Liaison Office. The military has even set up a one-stop shop-on
one floor of a Los Angeles office building - where the Army, Navy, Air Force,
Marines, Coast Guard, and Department of Defense itself have film liaison
offices. Additionally, the DoD runs an entire 'entertainment media division'
from the Pentagon."
As an example, the first "Transformers" film released in July 2007
variety of Air Force assets, and for the latest iteration of the film,
DreamWorks and Paramount studios partnered with all four US military services to
highlight America's military members and combat power on the big screen.
Special military "advisers" are appointed to ensure the desirable changes are
retained by the film makers. The Air Force was so happy to work with Hollywood
on the movie "Iron Man," that it had Capt. Chris Hodge as the DoD's project
officer for the film. He is said to have gloated about the movie, "The Air Force
is going to come off looking like rock stars."
According to Turse, "By co-opting the civilian 'culture of cool' the military
corporate complex is able to create positive associations with the armed forces,
immerse the young in an alluring, militarized world of fun, and make interaction
with the military sound second nature to today's Americans. The military is now
in the midst of a full-scale occupation of the entertainment industry, conducted
with far more skill (and enthusiasm on the part of the occupied) than America's
debacle in Iraq."
Even members of the US Congress have been captivated by the military's melding
of fiction and reality. On July 27, 2004, the
American Forces Press Service reported, in an article titled "Future Warrior
Exhibits Super Powers," "The Army's future soldier will resemble something out
of a science fiction movie, members of Congress witnessed at a demonstration on
Capitol Hill July 23."
The successful integration of "culture of cool" and the culture of military is
evident in the language of the veterans when they return home and speak of their
actions against the people of Iraq. Expressions straight out of video game
vocabularies like "lit you up," and "smoked 'em" are commonplace in their
recent article, that documents Iraq war veterans engaging in violence and
crime upon returning home, soldiers have described their experience in Iraq.
Veteran Daniel Freeman
told a reporter, "Toward the end, we were so mad and tired and frustrated,
you came too close, we lit you up. You didn't stop, we ran your car over with
His friend Anthony Marquez, of the 1st Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment, added,
"With each roadside bombing, soldiers would fire in all directions and just
light the whole area up. If anyone was around, that was their fault. We smoked 'em."
* * *
All available avenues have been explored by the Pentagon in its quest for a
wide-based acceptance of its policies. Social networking sites like Facebook and
Twitter have also been utilized for the tasks of
seeking out young recruits and spreading its message.
That the US military has made blatant use of the Media and the entertainment
industry to indoctrinate the young American mind is common knowledge. What has
perhaps gone unnoticed is how the military is insidiously infiltrating our
social and public lives. Earlier this summer, on Memorial Day weekend in Times
Square, New York City, the military showcased weaponry [Note: Scroll down after
clicking links for photos.] while recruiters
for pictures and engaged in small talk with women, men, children and
fondled rocket launchers, small children
pretended to fire heavy machine guns, young
posed with assault rifles, and even
housewives enjoyed the act of aiming rocket launchers.
The militarization of US culture in the minds of US citizens has grown
ubiquitous. Just this month, the
sounds of combat choppers, automatic weapons fire, and other battle noises being
broadcast nearby a rural neighborhood prompted locals to protest. The sounds
were part of a combat training exercises for SWAT team members and Marines. When
civilian neighbors complained of the noise, live ammunition being used and smoke
machines as being annoying as well as dangerous, the county opted to allow the
war games to continue.
Author/journalist Chris Hedges articulated the issue for Truthout, "Well, the
myth of war, at its core, is really a very visceral form of self-exaltation. It
is about the empowerment of our nation, of our society, and by extension, our
own empowerment. In the coverage, for instance, of the invasion of Iraq, this
was clearly evident on the cable news channels where the way the war was covered
was to bring in retired military to explain the power and precision and might of
our own weapons. And I think, very much, one was made to identify with the power
of those weapons and the power of the state. So war has a kind of seductive
appeal. The entertainment industry makes a lot of money off it. The politicians
perpetuate the myth of war, they romanticize war, they use words like glory,
honor, courage, manhood, to appeal to desires on the part of large segments of
the population who feel relatively powerless and relatively anonymous. And war
is a way of elevating them, or at least so they believe, into a kind of nobility
that peace time existence doesn't offer them."
If the US is to recover any of its waning international reputation and this
civilization is to sustain itself, the nation and its citizens will have to
invent safer, more human ways of elevating themselves.
Dahr Jamail, an independent journalist, is the author of "The Will to
Resist: Soldiers Who Refuse to Fight in Iraq and Afghanistan," (Haymarket Books,
2009) and "Beyond the Green Zone: Dispatches From an Unembedded Journalist in
Occupied Iraq," (Haymarket Books, 2007). Jamail reported from occupied Iraq for
nine months as well as from Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Turkey over the last five
Jason Coppola is the director and producer of the documentary film
"Justify My War," which explores the rationalization of war in American culture,
comparing the siege of Fallujah with the massacre at Wounded Knee. Coppola has
worked in Iraq as well as on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Bhaswati Sengupta also contributed to this report.