APPENDIX I [SECRETS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE By Eustace Mullins]
E.C. Knuth, in The Empire of the City, priv. printed, 1946, p. 27, refers to "the Bank of England, the full partner of the American Administration in the conduct of the financial affairs of all the world" and cites the Encyclopaedia Americana, 1943 edition.
Barron cites Lord Swaythling, (April 8, 1923), "Lord Swaythling said, ‘Exchange can only be run from London. This is the center in Exchange.’" (They Told Barron, by Clarence W. Barron, founder of Baron’s Weekly, Harpers, New York, 1930, p. 27.)
Exchange, in the international financial world, means the transactions in money or securities, or simply, the "exchange" of the values of these securities. It is necessary that this "exchange" take place where the values can be established, and this place is the "City" in London.
London was established as the primary center of exchange because of the "Consols" of the Bank of England, bonds which could never be redeemed, but which paid a stable rate of return. Henry Clews writes, in The Wall Street View, Silver Burdett Co. 1900, p. 255, "The Consolidated Act of 1757 consolidated the debts of the nation of England at 3%, which were kept in an account at the Bank of England and is the great bulwark of its deposits." By ostentatiously "dumping" "Consols" on the London Exchange after the Battle of Waterloo, in a pretended panic, Nathan Meyer Rothschild then secretly bought up the Consols sold in the panic by other holders at a low rate, and became the largest holder of Consols, and thus won control of the Bank of England in 1815.
Although a Labor government nationalized the Bank of England in 1946, The Great Soviet Encyclopaedia points out (vol. I, p. 490c) that the Bank of England continues to pay 12% dividends per annum, just as it had done prior to the nationalization. The "Governor" is appointed by the government, in a situation similar to that in the United States, where the Governors of the Federal Reserve System are appointed by the President. However, as is pointed out in the Encyclopaedia Americana v. 13, p. 272, "In practice, the governors of the Bank of England have not hesitated to criticize and bring pressure on the government in public."
The interest rate set by the Bank of England is known as "the Bank rate", and it is a controlling factor in interest rates throughout the world, although rates in other countries may be higher or lower than this "Bank rate". The Bank of England manages the government debt, and is called upon to arbitrate in political affairs. It served as the intermediary with the Iran revolutionaries in negotiating for the return of the American hostages--a recent example.
We should not be surprised that the present Governor of the Bank of England, Sir Gordon Richardson is a prominent international financial figure, who appears elsewhere in these pages because of his connection with the J. Henry Schroder @Wagg in London from 1962 to 1972, when he became Governor of the Bank of England. He was also director of J. Henry Schroder Co., New York, and Schroder Banking Corp., New York. He also serves as director of Rolls Royce and Lloyd’s Bank. Although he resides in London, he maintains a home in New York, and is listed in the current Manhattan directory simply as "G. Richardson, 45 Sutton Place S.", although a prior listing showed him at 4 Sutton Place. Sutton Place was developed as a fashionable address for the international set by Bessie Marbury, whom we earlier cited for her connection with the Morgan family and the Roosevelts.
The present directors of the Bank of England (1982) include Leopold de Rothschild of N.M. Rothschild & Sons, Sir Robert Clark, chairman of Hill Samuel Bank, the most influential bank after Rothschilds, John Clay, of Hambros Bank, and David Scholey, of Warburg Bank, and joint chairman of S.C. Warburg Co.
Anthony Sampson writes, in "The Changing Anatomy of Britain", Random House, New York, 1982, p. 279, "The more cosmopolitan banks with foreign experts and directors, such as Warburgs, Montagus, Rothschilds and Kleinworts, had also discovered a huge new source of profits in the market for Eurodollars which began in the late fifties and multiplied through the 60s . . . British bankers themselves controlled relatively small funds, but they knew how to make money out of other people’s money."
The Eurodollar market, a new development in "created money" is monopolized by the above firms.
"Today, together with allies on the island of Manhattan (Britain’s most important piece of real estate), the British Empire controls the entire $1.5 trillion Eurodollar financial market, another $300-$500 billion in the Cayman Islands, Bahamas, and $50-$100 billion in the Hong-Kong Singapore "Asia-dollar market". . . . Consider the $1.5 trillion Eurodollar market an "outlaw" market in the U.S. dollars over which this nation has no control. Here control and profits are overwhelmingly in the hands of London banks, who set the terms of lending and the interest rate on this mass of American dollars in relation to the London Interbank Borrowing Rate (LIBOR) . . . U.S. banks like Citibank (New York City), on whose board of directors sits the powerful British financier, Lord Aldington, collaborate openly in this market. At the same time, British banks including the known central bank for the world’s drug trade, the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, pour into America to devour U.S. banks. In 1978 the Hongshang (Ed.--Hongkong and Shanghai Bank) took over New York’s Marine Midland Bank, the state’s 11th largest commercial bank. . . The British also control the creation of American dollars. While Federal Reserve Board Chairman Paul Volcker tightens credit against the domestic economy, British-controlled banks in the Cayman Islands (such as the European American Bank--Ed.) a British possession 200 miles off Florida, and in the Bermudas and a dozen other "free banking" computer terminals create hundreds of billions of American dollars. How is this done? There are no reserve ratios or other restrictions on the creation of dollar-denominated credits in the Empire’s "free enterprise" banking. A $1 million bona fide credit coming from the United States can be turned into $20 to $100 million in dollar-denominated credits as it passes through the British system without reserve ratios."*
Not only the financial power, but also the legal power, has remained seated in Britain. The Washington Post commented on June 18, 1983 that after the American Revolution, all the old laws remained in effect in the new United States: Some of these laws of "English common law" dated back to 1278, long before America was discovered.
This enormous financial power of "the City" is revealed in many areas. Dean Acheson states, in "Present at the Creation", 1969, W.W. Norton, New York, p. 779, "We stayed at the embassy residence, the old J.P. Morgan mansion, 14 Prince’s Gate, facing Hyde Park." How many Americans are aware that the U.S. Embassy residence in London is the J.P. Morgan home, or that Dean Acheson, a former Morgan employee, described himself as Secretary of State on p. 505, "My own attitude had long been, and was known to have been, pro-British." No one commented on an American Secretary of State’s open bias in favor of England.
The Federal Reserve "created" money is not used only for financial matters; this money is also used to maintain the bankers’ control of every aspect of political, economic and social life. It is used to bankroll the enormous expenditures of political candidates, the swollen budgets of universities, the huge outlays required to start newspapers or magazines, and a vast array of foundations, "think-tanks" and other instruments of mind control.
Few Americans know that almost every development in psychology in the United States in the past sixty-five years has been directed by the Bureau of Psychological Warfare of the British Army. A short time ago,
* Harpers Magazine, Feb. 1980
the present writer learned a new name, The Tavistock Institute of London, also known as the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. "Human relations" covers every aspect of human behavior, and it is the modest goal of the Tavistock Institute to obtain and exercise control over every aspect of human behavior of American citizens.
Because of the intensive artillery barrages of World War I, many soldiers were permanently impaired by shell shock. In 1921, the Marquees of Tavistock, 11th Duke of Bedford, gave a building to a group which planned to conduct rehabilitation programs for shell shocked British soldiers. The group took the name of "Tavistock Institute" after its benefactor. The General Staff of the British Army decided it was crucial that they determine the breaking point of the soldier under combat conditions. The Tavistock Institute was taken over by Sir John Rawlings Reese, head of the British Army Psychological Warfare Bureau. A cadre of highly trained specialists in psychological warfare was built up in total secrecy. In fifty years, the name "Tavistock Institute’ appears only twice in the Index of the New York Times, yet this group, according to LaRouche and other authorities, organized and trained the entire staffs of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the Strategic Bombing Survey, Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Forces, and other key American military groups during World War II. During World War II, the Tavistock Institute combined with the medical sciences division of the Rockefeller Foundation for esoteric experiments with mind-altering drugs. The present drug culture of the United States is traced in its entirety to this Institute, which supervised the Central Intelligence Agency’s training programs. The "LSD counter culture" originated when Sandoz A.G., a Swiss pharmaceutical house owned by S.G. Warburg & Co., developed a new drug from lysergic acid, called LSD. James Paul Warburg (son of Paul Warburg who had written the Federal Reserve Act in 1910), financed a subsidiary of the Tavistock Institute in the United States called the Institute for Policy Studies, whose director, Marcus Raskin, was appointed to the National Security Council. James Paul Warburg set up a CIA program to experiment with LSD on CIA agents, some of whom later committed suicide. This program, MK-Ultra, supervised by Dr. Gottlieb, resulted in huge lawsuits against the United States Government by the families of the victims.
The Institute for Policy Studies set up a campus subsidiary, Students for Democratic Society (SDS), devoted to drugs and revolution. Rather than finance SDS himself, Warburg used CIA funds, some twenty million dollars, to promote the campus riots of the 1960s.
The English Tavistock Institute has not restricted its activities to left-wing groups, but has also directed the programs of such supposedly "conservative" American think tanks as the Herbert Hoover Institute at Stanford University, Heritage Foundation, Wharton, Hudson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Rand. The "sensitivity training" and "sexual encounter" programs of the most radical California groups such as Esalen Institute and its many imitators were all developed and implemented by Tavistock Institute psychologists.
One of the rare items concerning the Tavistock Institute appears in Business Week, Oct. 26, 1963, with a photograph of its building in the most expensive medical offices area of London. The story mentions "the Freudian bias" of the Institute, and comments that it is amply financed by British blue-chip corporations, including Unilever, British Petroleum, and Baldwin Steel. According to Business Week, the psychological testing programs and group relations training programs of the Institute were implemented in the United States by the University of Michigan and the University of California, which are hotbeds of radicalism and the drug network.
It was the Marquees of Tavistock, 12th Duke of Bedford, whom Rudolf Hess flew to England to contact about ending World War II. Tavistock was said to be worth $40 million in 1942. In 1945, his wife committed suicide by taking an overdose of pills.