just follow the trail....

first you have OPV approval.....


Jigawa Govt Backs Polio Vaccination
Daily Trust (Abuja)
February 27, 2004
Posted to the web February 27, 2004
Amidst the controversy over the safety of the polio vaccine in some states in
the Northern part of the country, the Jigawa State government has approved
its administration on children. Information commissioner, Abba Kukuma, said the
approval was to allay fears among the people about the safety of the vaccine
and ensure smooth conduct of the current immunisation in the state. He said the
measure was imperative in enhancing health care delivery in Jigawa. Kukuma
said the government has not rejected the ongoing polio immunisation, noting that
efficient campaign strategies had been employed to sensitise the grass roots.
"Already government officials have been drafted to local government areas to
explain to the people the importance of the exercise," he said, pledging that
government would prevail on the people to embrace the exercise. The
commissioner harped on the need for advocacy campaign to raise people's awareness on the
safety of the vaccine.

then you read OPV inserts:


Poliomyelitis Vaccine, Live, Oral, Trivalent (Sabin Strains)

Polioral is an aqueous preparation of attenuated, live, poliovirus type 1, 2
and 3 grown in cultures of monkey kidney tissue. The virus concentrations per
dose (2 drops) are as follows:
1 000 000 C.C.I.D.50 of Type 1 (strain L Sc 2 ab)
100 000 C.C.I.D.50 of Type 2 (strain P 712, Ch 2 ab)
600 000 C.C.I.D.50 of Type 3 (strain Leon 12 a1 b)
The vaccine is stabilised with 1 M MgCl2.

Immunosupression resulting from treatment or disease.
Should not be given to contacts of immunosuppressed patients.
Administration of Polioral should be delayed in persons suffering acute
febrile illnesses, debilitating ailment, abdominal pain, diarrhoea or other
intestinal disorders. Diarrhoea should not be considered a contra-indication to OPV,
but to ensure full protection, doses given to children with diarrhoea should
not be counted as part of the series and the child should be given another dose
at the first available opportunity. Warning: Do not administer parenterally.
The vaccine should not be used if turbidity is noted on thawing or standing.

Trivalent oral polio vaccine is given at birth, 6-. 10-, 14-weeks and
18 months. A booster dose is given at 5 years (pre-school age).
Administration: OPV must be administered orally. Thaw and shake well before
using. Two drops are delivered directly into the mouth from the multi-dose
dispenser. Care should be taken not to contaminate a multi-dose dropper with
saliva of the vaccinee. Once a dispenser has been opened, it should be used the
same day, and then only if it has been maintained between 0C and +8C.
Instruction for use: Turn the wing shaped cap in a clock-wise direction to
perforate the plastic dispenser. Unscrew the cap, hold the dispenser vertically
downwards and squeeze it to expel the vaccine drop by drop.

Fever, Malaise and headache and allergic reactions may occur.
Measures to treat anaphylaxis including adrenalin must always be available.

Vaccine-associated poliomyelitis has been reported in a small number of
recipients of oral polio vaccine and in contacts of recipients. Contacts of
recently immunized babies and infants should be advised of the need for strict
personal hygiene, particularly hand washing after napkin changing.

then read a bit more about polio itself...
Complications of Polio

About complications: Complications of Polio are secondary conditions,
symptoms, or other disorders that are caused by Polio. In many cases the distinction
between symptoms of Polio and complications of Polio is unclear or arbitrary.   

Complications list for Polio: The list of complications that have been
mentioned in various sources for Polio includes:
Meningitis - the infection that may result in paralysis.
Paralytic poliomyelitis - the name for polio when it progresses to cause
Respiratory paralysis
Permanent muscle weakness (see Muscle weakness)
Permanent paralysis
Permanent nerve damage (see Nerve symptoms)
Permanent spinal cord damage
Permanent brain damage (type of Brain damage)
Postpolio syndrome - usually occurring many years later

and, as if by magic, see what happens....


Meningitis kills dozens
20/03/2004 19:13 - (SA)
Kano, Nigeria - An epidemic of meningitis has killed dozens of people and
infected hundreds more in northern Nigeria, health officials and residents said
Saturday. The exact number of fatalities in northern Jigawa state was unknown,
but "up to fifty" people have died and hundreds more were receiving medical
treatment, state official Habibu Kila told reporters. The epidemic was first
reported on Monday to local health authorities. Kila said the outbreak was under
control. Ubale Zubairu, a resident who fled to Jigawa's capital, Dutse, from
one affected district, Jahun, said between 50 and 100 people have died from the
disease. Meningitis - an infection of the spinal fluid near the brain caused
by either virus or bacteria - seasonally affects swathes of West Africa, aided
by dry, hot weather and the poorly ventilated habitats of the region's mainly
impoverished inhabitants. Edited by Trisha Shannon 

did you notice that the Oral Polio Vaccine can cause polio and did you notice
that meningitis is a noted complication of polio?

well done....