Vivisection Racket

Vaccines used to induce disease in animals



Javier RS, et al.  
Semple rabies vaccine: presence of myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein and its activity in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neurol Sci. 1989 Nov;93(2-3):221-30. PMID: 2480399; UI: 90079513.
Myelin basic protein (MBP) as a cause of postvaccinal encephalomyelitis (PVE) due to Semple rabies vaccine (SRV) has been suggested in previous reports. No actual measurement of MBP in SRV was done. In this study we detected MBP and PLP in the vaccine using immunological methods. The vaccine was found to contain 28 micrograms MBP per ml vaccine. Inoculation with SRV plus adjuvant resulted in the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in 2 of 3 guinea pigs. For control, chick embryo vaccine (CEV) was used and MBP was not detected. EAE was not induced in animals inoculated with it. These results suggest that MBP in vaccines may play a decisive role in the production of PVE.

Piyasirisilp S, et al.  
Association of HLA and T-cell receptor gene polymorphisms with Semple rabies vaccine-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ann Neurol. 1999 May;45(5):595-600. PMID: 10319881; UI: 99251599.  Semple rabies vaccine is derived from brain tissue infected with rabies virus that is subsequently inactivated with phenol. Semple rabies vaccine-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis (SAE) occurs in 1 in 220 immunized individuals. The immune response to myelin basic protein and pathological changes of demyelination in SAE suggest that this disease is the human homologue of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). SAE and EAE are frequently studied as models for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis

Griffin DE.    Monophasic autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the CNS and PNS. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1990;68:91-104. Review. PMID: 1970192; UI: 90222719.

Post-rabies vaccine encephalomyelitis, postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are all monophasic, inflammatory, demyelinating diseases that appear to be autoimmune in pathogenesis and induced by prior antigenic stimulation or infection. The primary encephalitogen for rabies vaccine and postinfectious encephalomyelitis appears to be MBP, with a possible augmenting role for the myelin glycolipids. The primary neuritogen in AIDP may be a glycolipid, but this has not been clearly established. The mechanism by which a prior, apparently unrelated, stimulus leads to postinfectious encephalomyelitis or AIDP is unclear, but abnormalities of immune regulation, possible molecular mimicry between infectious agents and neural constituents, and genetic susceptibility may each play important roles (Table 1).


Au-Jensen M, et al.    Is the acute encephalopathy test in mice suited for control of pertussis vaccines? Dev Biol Stand. 1985;61:447-51. PMID: 3835081; UI: 86221312.

Animal models to control the serious neurological complications after vaccination against whooping cough are not available. In a recent paper pertussis vaccine induced acute encephalopathy in certain mouse strains (1). Healthy BALB/c mice died with shock-like symptoms after immunization with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and heat-killed pertussis. Mice not sensitized with BSA survived, and mice of strains with another H-2 type than H-2d were not susceptible. The authors concluded that the susceptibility to side effects to pertussis vaccine in mice and possibly in human is linked to the MHC. We tried to repeat the experiments reported by Steinman et al. in the hope that the murine encephalopathy model would be useful to evaluate possible neurological complications. In spite of having the same H-2d genotype, the BALB/c mice of two breeding stocks did not develop shock-like symptoms with fatal consequences after the last injection with BSA. This fact corresponds possibly with the author's observation that the pertussis vaccine encephalopathy is not under the control of H-2 genes alone. As shown in our tests the sudden deaths and encephalopathy in mice are not linked to BSA-sensitization because mice who received pertussis vaccine only showed the same symptoms as mice injected with BSA and vaccine. Histology did not indicate brain damage. It seems obvious that the deaths in our experiments were caused by the pertussis toxins present in the large numbers of bacteria given.

Munoz JJ; Peacock MG; Hadlow WJ  Anaphylaxis or so-called encephalopathy in mice sensitized to an antigen with the aid of pertussigen (pertussis toxin). Infect Immun, 55: 4, 1987 Apr, 1004-8
Sensitization of mice with 1 mg of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or chicken egg albumin (EA) given intraperitoneally and 300 to 400 ng of pertussigen (pertussis toxin [Ptx]) given intravenously (i.v.) induced a high degree of anaphylactic sensitivity when the mice were challenged i.v. with 1 mg of antigen 14 days later. Regardless of H-2 haplotype, all of the strains tested (CFW, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, and C3H.SW/SnJ) were susceptible to anaphylaxis. Sensitization of mice by a multiple-dose procedure that has been reported to induce fatal encephalopathy in mice (L. Steinman, A. Weiss, N. Adelman, M. Lim, R. Zuniga, J. Oehlert, E. Hewlett, and S. Falkow, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 8733-8736, 1982) (1 mg of BSA on day -1, 100 to 400 ng of Ptx on day zero 1 mg of BSA on day +1, 100 to 400 ng of Ptx on day +2, and 1 mg of BSA on day +6) induced shock in BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, and C3H.SW/SnJ mice, but not in CFW mice. When EA was used instead of BSA, CFW, BALB/cJ, and C3H.SW/SnJ mice did not develop fatal shock, whereas DBA/2J mice did. When dose 3 of antigen (BSA or EA) was postponed to day +21, all mouse strains sensitized by the multiple-dose procedure were found to be susceptible to shock. The fatal shock induced by this procedure, as well as that induced by giving a single sensitizing dose of antigen and Ptx, could be prevented by one to three 1-ml doses of saline given i.v. at the time signs of severe shock appeared. Although only one dose of saline was often sufficient to save the mice, two or three doses were usually needed. Microscopic changes were not found in midsagittal sections of the brains of mice sensitized by either procedure. This was true of mice that died from shock or were saved from shock by injections of saline. From these results, we concluded that the proposed model for encephalopathy induced in mice by Ptx and BSA demonstrates only the well-known anaphylactogenic effect of Ptx or pertussis vaccine. Since there are many other more sensitive methods to detect Ptx, induction of anaphylaxis is not of much value for detection or quantitation of Ptx in pertussis vaccine.

Peroutka SJ; Kitamura K; Lim M; Steinman L   Treatment of lethal pertussis vaccine reaction with histamine H1 antagonists. Neurology, 37: 6, 1987 Jun, 1068-72
We studied mortality after pertussis immunization in the mouse. Without treatment, 73 of 92 animals (80%) died after injection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on day +7 of pertussis immunization. After pretreatment with 3 mg of cyproheptadine, 2 mg mianserin, or 2 mg chlorpheniramine, only 5 of 105 animals (5%) died after receiving BSA on day +7 (p less than 0.001). Blockade of histamine H1 receptors may reduce mortality in pertussis immunization-induced encephalopathy in mice.

Redhead K, et al.     The activity of purified Bordetella pertussis components in murine encephalopathy. J Biol Stand. 1987 Oct;15(4):341-51. PMID: 3680302; UI: 88059141.

A murine encephalopathic syndrome can be induced by the administration of BSA and whole-cell pertussis vaccine. The present paper reports studies of the capacity of purified individual pertussis components to induce this effect. Pertussis toxin and endotoxin together with a highly immunogenic sensitizer protein were required to induce the effect. The strength of the antibody response to the sensitizer appeared to be more important than the H-2 type of the recipient in determining the susceptibility of different mouse strains. The relevance of this syndrome to the study of possible vaccine-induced encephalopathy in man is uncertain and requires further investigation.

Steinman L, et al.    Pertussis toxin is required for pertussis vaccine encephalopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Dec;82(24):8733-6. PMID: 2867545; UI: 86094299.
A mouse model for encephalopathy induced by pertussis immunization has been described; it has features that closely resemble some of the severe reactions, including seizures and a shock-like state leading to death, occasionally seen after administration of Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine. Susceptibility to encephalopathy maps to genes of the major histocompatibility complex and correlates as well with the genetic regulation of the level of antibody response to bovine serum albumin. In this study we have investigated which bacterial determinant is responsible for the encephalopathy. Two lines of evidence implicate pertussis toxin as the active bacterial component. Single-site mutants of B. pertussis with single affected virulence factors were tested. A mutant that produces a defective pertussis toxin had greatly diminished capacity to induce encephalopathy, whereas a hemolysin- and adenylate-cyclase-deficient avirulent mutant had the same activity in the mouse model as a virulent strain. Purified pertussis toxin plus bovine serum albumin was tested and found to induce the lethal encephalopathy, demonstrating that the toxin was the critical constituent of B. pertussis responsible for encephalopathy.


Steinman L, et al.  Murine model for pertussis vaccine encephalopathy: role of the major histocompatibility complex; antibody to albumin and to Bordetella pertussis and pertussis toxin. Dev Biol Stand. 1985;61:439-46. PMID: 2872126; UI: 86221311.
      A mouse model for pertussis immunization encephalopathy has been described with features that closely resemble the severe adverse reactions occasionally seen after pertussis vaccine administration,m including seizures and a shock-like state leading to death. These reactions are produced with nearly one hundred percent efficiency provided that the mice immunized with Bordetella pertussis have 1) the appropriate major histocompatibility (H-2) genotype, 2) have been sensitized to bovine serum albumin (BSA), and 3) that the injected B. pertussis contained sufficient amounts of pertussis toxin. Antibody titres were measured in mice with haplotypes H-2d.s.k. that are highly susceptible to encephalopathy as well as in H-2b mice, that are totally resistant. Mice with H-2d.s.k. haplotypes were high responders to BSA, while H-2b (B10) mice were non-responders to BSA. Both H-2d and H-2b mice responded well to B. pertussis. Encephalopathy was induced in resistant H-2b mice with B. pertussis and passively administered anti-BSA antiserum, but not with B. pertussis and anti-(T,G)-A--L antibody. This indicated that B. pertussis and anti-BSA were absolutely required for development of encephalopathy. Encephalopathy could be induced in mice decomplemented with cobra venom factor and given BSA and B. pertussis. Several single-site mutants of B. pertussis affecting single virulence factors were induced with transposon Tn5. One of these mutants, BP357, deficient in pertussis toxin production, had a greatly reduced encephalopathic potential in the mouse model compared to the virulent strain BP 338, or to BP348, an adenylate cyclase and hemolysin double mutant, or to BP 349, a hemolysin mutant.

Experimental neuropathy

Powell HC, Mizisin AP, Wiley CA, Morey MK, Hughes RA.  Relationship of adjuvants and swine influenza vaccine to experimental neuropathy in rabbits.Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1987;73(1):12-8.PMID: 3037840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Experimental neuropathy, characterized by endoneurial edema and demyelination, was induced by inoculating rabbits with a combination of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), gangliosides, lecithin and cholesterol. A less severe demyelinating neuropathy could be induced by treatment with FCA alone but no significant change could be elicited by injection of swine influenza vaccine (SFV) alone. When FCA was combined with gangliosides, lecithins, cholesterol and SFV, neuropathy occurred, but the changes were less severe than if these agents were used without SFV. Sera were tested for myelin basic protein (MBP) and galactocerebroside (GC) antibodies in each experimental group. Neither SFV alone nor SFV combined with Freund's complete adjuvant, gangliosides, cholesterol and lecithin evoked significant antibody titers to MBP or GC. However, rabbits inoculated with FCA, gangliosides, lecithin and cholesterol had rising titers of antibody to both MBP and GC over the 3-month experimental period. One rabbit inoculated with FCA alone had significant antibody to MBP. The findings suggest that Freund's complete adjuvant alone can induce demyelination in the peripheral nerves of rabbits and that SFV may modulate the immune response acting either as an adjuvant or suppressant in the experimental demyelinating disease.