Cowpox: increased incidence or interest? [letter; comment] (Baxby D; Lancet, 1994 Feb 26)



Independent evolution of monkeypox and variola viruses. (Douglass N; J Virol, 1992 Dec)

Cowpox: a re-evaluation of the risks of human cowpox based on new epidemiological information. (Baxby D; Arch Virol Suppl, 1997)



Fine PE, Jezek Z, Grab B, Dixon H The transmission potential of monkeypox virus in human populations.
Int J Epidemiol 1988 Sep 17:3 643-50 [MEDLINE], [full MEDLINE], [related records]

Data on monkeypox in Zaire over the five years 1980-1984 are analysed to assess the protection imparted by past smallpox vaccination and the transmission potential of the virus in unvaccinated communities. Attack rates in individuals with and without vaccination scars indicated that smallpox vaccination (discontinued in 1980) imparted approximately 85% protection against monkeypox. It is predicted that monkeypox virus will continue to be introduced into human communities from animal sources, and that the average magnitude and duration of monkeypox epidemics will increase as vaccine-derived protection declines in the population. On the other hand, current evidence indicates that the virus is appreciably less transmissible than was smallpox, and that it will not persist in human communities, even in the total absence of vaccination. The findings thus support the recommendation of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication to cease routine smallpox vaccination in monkeypox endemic areas, but to encourage continued epidemiological surveillance.

Analysis of the complete genome of smallpox variola major virus strain Bangladesh-1975. (Massung RF; Virology, 1994 Jun)