1.1
Introduction:
Space plays a central role in all electrodynamic interactions. Both
electric and magnetic fields are propagated through the medium of
space. Today, everyone understands that space has a fixed
propagation velocity, the speed of light "C". Less
understood or appreciated is the causes of, and implications derived
from, this fixed and finite velocity. Purists will strenuously
object to my use of "fixed" to describe the velocity of light, the
term they prefer is "isotropic". However, as even the purists will
concede, from a strictly localized point of view, the speed of light
does appear as fixed.
1.2.1
Equivalent Circuits:
In electrical engineering we are taught that any unknown
electromagnetic system can be modeled by an equivalent circuit.
The question becomes: "what sort of circuit propagates
electromagnetic waves coherently, and at a fixed velocity?". The
circuit is called a transmission line and a coaxial cable is a good
example. A transmission line consists of a geometric structure that
has both inductance [L] and capacitance [C] spread evenly along the
length of the line. This equivalent circuit can be further
simplified by considering both inductance per length and capacitance
per length to be lumped sum.
1.2.2
Propagation Velocity:
A simple equation exists to determine the propagation velocity of
any transmission line.
Where:
1.2.3
The Speed of Light:
If we build an inductor with empty space for the core, or a
capacitor with empty space for the dielectric, the measured values
of inductance or capacitance are NOT zero. When we plug the
measured values of inductance and capacitance (per meter) into Eq.1,
the resultant propagation velocity is that of light in empty space,
"C". Therefore, empty space behaves just like our physical
transmission line equivalent circuit in terms of propagation
velocity.
1.2.4
Series or Parallel:
Inductors and capacitors (LC networks) may be connected in either
series or parallel to form a transmission line. When connected in
parallel, the DC electrical resistance is near zero. When connected
in series, the DC electrical resistance is close to infinite. The
DC electrical resistance of free space is infinite (below the break
down potential). Therefore space is a series connected LC network.
1.2.5
Thermal Dissipation:
Free space differs from a physical transmission line in one
important detail. Free space has no internal electrical resistance.
It behaves as if constructed of super conducting materials and loss
less dielectric and paramagnetic materials. An electromagnetic
signal in space may be attenuated by the inverse square rule, but
never dissipates into random thermal energy. Therefore space is
capable of transmitting electromagnetic signals or waves without
any distance limitation.
1.3.1
Dielectric Materials:
Many nonconductive materials will exhibit dielectric properties to
a greater or lesser degree. The basis for this response to applied
electrical fields is polarization of the electric dipoles contained
in the material. The electric dipoles are aligned by the applied
electric field, and produce a counter field, in opposition to the
applied field. Materials that are easily polarized produce a
greater dielectric response. All capacitors contain some form of
dielectric material.
1.3.2
Paramagnetic Materials:
Any material with unpaired electron spins will exhibit magnetic
properties to a greater or lesser extent. These unpaired electrons
will spin align (polarize) with the applied magnetic field. In
paramagnetic materials, the polarization disappears when the applied
magnetic field is removed. Materials that are easily polarized
produce a greater paramagnetic response. All inductors contain some
form of paramagnetic material.
1.3.3
Structural Requirements of Space:
Space is a (3 dimensional) transmission line (1.2.1 ), composed of
series connected LC networks (1.2.4), that are loss less (1.2.5),
and has a propagation velocity set by it's electrical inductance and
capacitance (1.2.2 & 1.2.3) as determined by it's dielectric and
paramagnetic properties (1.3.1 & 1.3.2). What possible structure
could satisfy this set of requirements?
1.3.4
The Dirac Sea:
In the 1920's P.A.M. Dirac discovered the quantum equation that
fully describes an electron. This equation has the peculiarity of
having two symmetrical solutions, differing by the sign of the
electron energy. The positive energy solution was obviously
describing an electron, but what was the negative energy solution
describing? It described the positron or antielectron, later
observed in cloud chamber experiments. Dirac later realized that a
negative energy solution implied the existence of a vast sea of
electron/positron pairs that acted as the substrate for all real
(observable) electrons and positrons. Observable electrons and
positrons are nothing more than particles pulled lose from this
Dirac sea, and represent "defects" (unpaired particles) in the sea,
much the same way as electrons and holes arise from intentional
defects in a semiconductor material. Each observable particle has a
mass equal to the energy required to liberate (pull) the particle
from the Dirac sea, and each particle will give up this energy of
mass, when it is once more "paired" with it's antiparticle and
"falls" back into the sea. These particle pairs constitute dipoles,
and I shall use this term interchangeably with
particle/antiparticle pairs.
1.3.5
Composition of Space:
The Dirac sea satisfies all structural requirements of space
(1.3.3). Particle/antiparticle pairs behave as dipoles and will
exhibit both required dielectric and paramagnetic properties. The
binding energy of these particle pairs is responsible for the
nonconductive nature (infinite DC electrical resistance) of space.
Further, the particle pairs are in a negative energy state, and
there is no mechanism by which the pairs can dissipate energy,
consequently electromagnetic waves are propagated without loss.
And since observable particles (real electrons, etc.) are nothing
more than unpaired defects in the sea, these particles are free to
move in an unimpeded fashion throughout the sea (space).
1.4.1
Uncertainty principle
Observable (real) particles may exchange energy with their Dirac sea
counterparts. In this manner, a real electron falls back into the
sea, and a nearby sea electron becomes observable (real). The
consequence of such exchanges is an uncertainty in the observable
particle's kinetic state. Therefore no observable particle is ever
truly at rest, and all observable particles possess a zero point
energy.
1.4.2
Temperature of Empty Space:
In the absence of electromagnetic fields, the Dirac sea particle
pairs must be completely random in their orientation, because any
nonrandom orientation would give rise to an electromagnetic field.
This random orientation represents a state of maximum entropy
(disorder) and therefore an infinite temperature. The condition is
metastable since infinite temperature implies infinite energy, and
the sea would "boil" particles into (observable) existence thereby
creating electromagnetic fields, and lowering the temperature of
the sea.
1.4.3
Density of Space:
Propagation velocity of electromagnetic fields is higher in space
than in any physical transmission line. Consequently the dielectric
and paramagnetic response of space must be smaller than any physical
material, since propagation velocity is inversely proportional to
the square root of the product term of inductance and capacitance
(Eq. 1). Or stated another way, the particle/antiparticle pairs in
the sea are more tightly bound than the equivalent particles in real
(observable) matter. Therefore space has a higher density than
matter!
1.4.4
Matter/Energy Equivalence:
We are now in a position to reformulate Einstein's famous equation E
= MC^{2} by substituting equation Eq. 1 (above) for C^{2}.
The result is:
The implications are nothing short of staggering. Both matter and
energy are electrodynamic in nature. Further, the values for
dielectric and paramagnetic polarization of space determine the
ratio of equivalence!
1.4.5
Conclusions:
That space is an electromagnetic transmission line (1.2.1),
composed of dipoles or particle/antiparticle pairs (1.3.5). That
propagation velocity is set by the inductive and capacitive values
of these particle pairs (1.2.3). That observable particles (matter)
exist as unpaired defects in the Dirac sea (1.3.4). That quantum
uncertainty arises from interactions between observable particles
and the Dirac sea particle/antiparticle pairs (1.4.1). That space
has a higher density than matter (1.4.3). And most surprising of
all, both matter and energy arise from an electrodynamic foundation
(1.4.4). In part 2 we shall consider relativistic effects, curved
space and expansion of the universe in light of our new
understanding.
End
Electrodynamic Structure of Space  Part 1
