Electrodynamic Structure of Space - Part 2
The complexity of nothing,
Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one.
-Albert Einstein-
In part 1, we developed the concept of space as an electrodynamic phenomena caused by a sea of particle/anti-particle pairs (dipoles).  Here we shall discuss some of the cosmological consequences of this concept.  No discussion of cosmological processes can ignore the contributions and insights made by Einstein.  And neither shall I.

The electro-magnetic propagation velocity of space is determined by the dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values of the particle pairs (dipoles) that comprise space (1.2.3).  Looked at another way, these polarization values set the ratio between length and time (v = l/t) in our electrodynamic space.  Notice the absolute value for length or time is NOT defined by this relationship, just the ratio of length to time.  Thus as Einstein first pointed out, we inhabit a universe where space (length) and time (duration) are inseparable, and relative to each other.  Therefore any shift in the dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values of space, will cause a corresponding change in the ratio of length to duration (time).  For instance, a rise in polarization values of space, results in length (space) contraction, and time dilation (the ratio of l/t falls).

Matter arises as defects (unpaired particles) embedded in a frictionless substrate of dipole pairs that comprise electrodynamic space (1.3.4).  Energy arises as electro-magnetic waves or alignment correlations in the dipole pairs that comprise electrodynamic space.  Our matter/energy equivalence [part 1, eq.2] implies that all natural forces have as their roots, a unified electro-magnetic field, propagated through an electrodynamic space.  Therefore any shift in the dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values of space, will cause a corresponding change in the coupling coefficients of all natural forces, and the internal energy content of all matter embedded in that modified space.  For instance, a rise in polarization values of space, results in a lower electron orbital binding energy, and a consequent red shift in atomic line spectra.

Constants or Variables:
Are the dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values of space, constants or are they variables?  Einstein said the local velocity of light "C" was a constant for any observer.  This would seem to indicate the polarization values for space are constants as well, since these polarization values determine the velocity of light (1.2.3).  The catch phrase here is "local velocity of light".  Our observer would have to use measuring instruments constructed of matter and utilizing forces, all of which are also embedded in and subject to, the very space he/she is observing.  And as Einstein foresaw in his 1905 relativity paper, any change in the velocity of light will be accompanied by changes in the instrumentality used to measure the velocity of light (2.2.2), moreover as the Michelson-Morley aether drift experiments clearly demonstrate, these changes in instrumentality exactly offset the change in the velocity of light.  Hence the velocity of light will appear to be constant, even when the polarization values of space change.  For instance, a rise in the dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values of space, will result in shorter rulers and slower clocks to measure the lower velocity of light.  As we see, electrodynamic space gives us the perfect tool to understand Einstein's relativity (space/time).

Distant Observers:
A consequence of this "apparent" constancy in the local velocity of light, is that a distant observer, outside an altered volume of space, would be able to see the distortions in any instrumentality embedded in that altered space.  And knowing the distortion, the distant observer would be able to calculate the relative difference in light velocity between the remote location, and location of the observer.  Therefore, while all local measurements will yield a constant velocity for light, distant observations will reveal any shift in the dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values by the distortion these cause to instrumentalities embedded in that distant space.  Again, in agreement with Einstein's 1905 relativity paper.

Dielectric/Paramagnetic Non-linearity:
Dipole (particle/anti-particle pair) polarization, in response to electro-magnetic fields is to a greater or lesser extent non-linear.  Our electrodynamic space is no exception to this rule.  For small values of electro-magnetic field, the polarization response closely approaches linearity.  However for large values of electro-magnetic field, where the field energy approaches the dipole binding energy (ionization potential of space), the dipole polarization response of space becomes increasingly non-linear.  Einstein's relativity equations for length contraction and time dilation predict just such an asymptotic non-linearity with respect to the relative velocity, and the kinetic energy of a moving object.  We now see the root cause for the injunction against traveling at the velocity of light.  At the velocity of light, the kinetic energy of the object would equal the dipole binding energy of space, and space itself would break down (ionize).

Moving Observers:
As is the case for distant observations (2.2.4), an observer in motion, relative to any measurement instrumentality will also see a distortion in the measurement instrumentality.  The cause of this distortion, reside in the fact that a moving object (or observer) has greater internal energy than an object at rest (see companion paper entitled Inductive Momentum), and this energy, stored as stresses or correlation alignments of the dipole sea that comprise electrodynamic space (2.2.2), will result in raising the dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values of the local space (2.3.1).  While this distortion exists at any velocity, it only becomes pronounced at very high velocities, owing to the non-linearity of dipole polarization response.

Bent Space:
Since the polarization response of electrodynamic space to the presence of an electro-magnetic field is non-linear (2.3.1), it follows that a second electro-magnetic field will have it's propagation velocity modified by the presence of the original electro-magnetic field.  An example of this effect is the bending of star light, passing through the high gravitational field close to the Sun (see companion paper entitled Electrogravitics Parts 1 & 2).  The presence of matter/energy creates large localized electro-magnetic fields, and these in turn raise the local dielectric and paramagnetic polarization values of space, thereby lowering the local velocity of light and bending any electro-magnetic wave passing through that space.  Note that a ruler embedded in bent space, will also be bent, as a consequence of a similar distortion in electro-magnetic fields that are responsible for atomic and molecular binding inside the ruler.  Of course an observer embedded in bent space is also bent, and perceives the bent ruler as straight…  In summary, as Einstein once said:  "Matter and energy tell space how to bend, and bent space tells matter and energy how to move".  We now have an understanding of why this is true.

Expanding Space:
Edwin Hubble was the first astronomer to observe the universal correlation between distance and recessional velocity implied by the red shift in the spectra of star light.  From a mechanical viewpoint, all objects in the universe seem to be moving away (receding) from each other.  Also from this viewpoint, we conclude that at some previous time there was a big bang or explosion that imparted the recessional velocities Hubble observed.  An electrodynamic space allows a different interpretation.  If the values of dielectric and paramagnetic polarization of space were to decline as the universe aged, then space it self is expanding, and no big bang is required.  Star light appears red shifted because all clocks (including atoms) run slower, at the higher polarization values that existed in the past.  And since the farther away we look in space, the farther into the past we are looking, the greater will be the time dilation (and space contraction) we observe (2.2.4).  In other words, matter is NOT expanding through space.  Space it self is expanding, and the matter embedded in space, came along for the ride.  However as always, the local velocity of light will appear to be constant for all past, present, or future observers.

Thermodynamic Consequences:
The process of nuclear fusion in stars converts matter to energy.  Being a natural process, it must also be an exothermic process, radiating the electro-magnetic energy into a heat sink.  The act of energy radiation, implies this heat sink is the future state or condition of the universe, since radiation through space is also through time (2.2.1).  An expanding electrodynamic space guarantees that tomorrow will always be colder than today, and supplies the stars with a perpetual heat sink.  Without space expansion, the physical universe would reach thermal equilibrium, and the stars would cease to shine.  A further and wholly unexpected consequence of space expansion, is that as the physical universe cools down through the process of expansion, the internal temperature of space rises, eventually becoming meta-stable and spawning (boiling) a new universe into existence! (1.4.2)  Another way to view this is that a young universe is physically hot and spatially cold, while an old universe is physically cold and spatially hot.  Here is our alternant process of creation to replace the big bang.

An electrodynamic formulation of space, allows the counter-intuitive predictions of Einstein's relativity, and it's subsequent empirical confirmations, to be understood in a context where these predictions flow as natural consequences of the underlying structure that comprise space (2.2.3, 2.2.4, 2.3.2, 2.3.3, & 2.3.4).  Further, it gives us some insight as to how space can be engineered (1.2.2 & 2.3.1 ).  And unlike the mechanical expansion/big bang world view, this formulation directly incorporates physical creation as a consequence of space expansion (2.3.5).  Electrodynamic space is not some uninteresting background stage, upon which energy and matter perform their dance.  It is a fully participating partner in that dance and it's structure is responsible for many nuances of that dance.

Electrodynamic Structure of Space - Part 2