Toxoids, Bacterial & viral vaccines

Diptheria, tetanus vaccines

Bacilli placed within a suitable medium, eg meat broth, and are stimulated to secrete toxins.  Bacilli are filtered off, formaldehyde is added to toxin rich broth, and mixture incubated for two or three weeks.  Sometimes alum, or aluminium phosphate is added (causes toxoid to be absorbedmore slowly).

Bacterial vaccines
Pertussis, haemophilus influenza b, mengococcal, pneumococcal, TB, typhoid, plague, cholera vaccines

Bacteria are grown on artificial medium, then incubated, seperated from medium, and collected.  Saline solution added and bacteria killed by heat or germ killing agents , and preservatives added (eg phenol, thimersol, 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde).  May also contain: polysaccharides, antibiotics (neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B), Tween 80 (stabiliser), and adjuvants.

Viral vaccines
Rubella, polio, measles,mumps, hepatitis A, influenza A & B, rotavirus, varicella, yellow fever vaccines

Harvested from infective fluids.  Propagated on monkey kidney cells, human diploid cells (aborted fetal lung tissue, chick embryos, eggs, or mouse brains (Japanese encephalitis vaccine) or yeast (hep b).  Viruses inactivated/killed with formaldehyde or weakened/attenuated (eg dried).  Cell culturesvare generally grown in the presence of inorganic salts, amino acids, vitamins, dextrose, phenol red, antibiotics, calf serum.  May then be filtered, diluted and stabilised.  Final vaccine may include alcohol, thimerosol, antibiotics, detergents and organic solvents

Source: Catherine Diodati