MMR vaccines adverse reactions citations
MMR vaccines

SeeMMR dangers (Independent studies Dr. Andy Wakefield  Geier, MR and Geier, DA  F. Edward Yazbak MD Independent 

[1998] Weibel et al Acute Encephalopathy Followed by Permanent Brain Injury or Death Associated With Further Attenuated Measles Vaccines: A Review of Claims Submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program  A total of 48 children, ages 10 to 49 months, met the inclusion criteria after receiving measles vaccine, alone or in combination. Eight children died, and the remainder had mental regression and retardation, chronic seizures, motor and sensory deficits, and movement disorders.

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Allergy reactions to gelatin & neomycin (journal articles)

Goldman GS, Yazbak FE. An investigation of the association between MMR vaccination and autism in Denmark. J Am Physicians and Surgeons 2002 Fall; 9(3):705.

Stephen T. Schultz  Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder
Autism, Vol. 12, No. 3, 293-307 (2008)
DOI: 10.1177/1362361307089518 2008 The National Autistic Society, SAGE Publications
The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.4226.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.1114.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.5643.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

Corri Black, James A. Kaye, Hershel Jick. January 2003.  MMR vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura

Farhad Imani1,  Kelly E. Kehoe.  Infection of Human B Lymphocytes with MMR Vaccine Induces IgE Class Switching pp. 355-361 (doi:10.1006/clim.2001.5073) Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, The Johns HopkinsUniversity School of Medicine, Asthma and Allergy Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, Maryland, 21224 (Received February 26, 2001; accepted May 24, 2001; published electronically July 26, 2001)
Circulating immunoglobulin E (IgE) is one of the characteristics of human allergic diseases including allergic asthma. We recently showed that infection ofhuman B cells with rhinovirus or measles virus could lead to the initial steps of  IgE class switching. Since many viral vaccines are live viruses, we speculated  that live virus vaccines may also induce IgE class switching in human B cells.  To examine this possibility, we selected the commonly used live attenuated measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine. Here, we show that infection of a human IgM+ B cell line with MMR resulted in the expression of germline  transcript. In addition, infection of freshly prepared human PBLs with this vaccine resulted in the expression of mature IgE mRNA transcript. Our data suggest that a potential side effect of vaccination with live attenuated viruses may be an increase in the expression of IgE. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.


Amin J, et al.  Measles-mumps-rubella immunisation, autism and inflammatory bowel disease: update. Commun Dis Intell. 1999 Aug 5;23(8):222. No abstract available.PMID: 10497836; UI: 99427486       
Akobeng AK, et al.  Inflammatory bowel disease, autism, and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1999 Mar;28(3):351-2. No abstract available.PMID: 10067748; UI: 99165071.
Bitnun A, et al.   Measles inclusion-body encephalitis caused by the vaccine strain of measles virus. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Oct;29(4):855-61. PMID: 10589903; UI: 20055848.
T Zecca, D Graffino, M Lania-Howarth, M Passante, J Oleske. NJMS, Children's Hospital of NJ, Newark, NJ Elevated Rubeola Titers in Autistic Children
The syndrome of autism is a clinical entity affecting 20 out of 10,000 children. We have evaluated the possible role of MMR in the pathogenesis of autism by comparing rubeola titers in autistic and normal children. Among 16 children diagnosed with autism followed in our clinical practice, we noted these children to have a 3 fold increase in their rubeola titers over expected normal range. A Wilcoxon Kruskal Wallis test comparing 13 rubeola titers from normal children reveals a statistically significant P-value of 0.0050. Subjectively, parents have stated that their children's developmental milestones deteriorated following MMR vaccination. Neurological sequelae following MMR are widely reported. MMR therefore may play a role in the pathogenesis of autism. The elevated titers of anti-measles antibodies in autistic children may signify a chronic activation of the immune system against this neurotropic virus.
Jenkin GA, et al.    What is the cause of a rash after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination? Med J Aust. 1999 Aug 16;171(4):194-5. PMID: 10494235; UI: 99424022.

Martinon-Torres F, et al.    [Self-limited acute encephalopathy related to measles component of viral triple vaccine]. Rev Neurol. 1999 May 1-15;28(9):881-2. Spanish. PMID: 10390753; UI: 99319226.
Ishikawa T, Ogino C, Chang S.  Brain Dev 1999 Dec;21(8):563-5 Lennox-Gastaut syndrome after a further attenuated live measles vaccination.

Wakefield AJ.      MMR vaccination and autism. Lancet. 1999 Sep 11;354(9182):949-50. No abstract available.PMID: 10489978; UI: 99418510.


Kaga, "Unilateral Total Loss of Auditory and Vestibular Function as a Complication of Mumps Vaccination", Int J Ped Oto, Feb 1998, 43(1):73-73

Kiln MR, "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 1998 May 2;351(9112):1358.

Selway, "MMR vaccination and autism 1998. Medical practitioners need to give more than reassurance." BMJ 1998 Jun 13;316(7147):1824.

Nicoll A, Elliman D, Ross E, "MMR vaccination and autism 1998," MJ 1998 Mar 7;316(7133):715-716.

Lindley K J, Milla PJ, "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine."Lancet 1998 Mar 21;351 (9106):907-908.

Bedford H, et al, "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 1998 Mar 21;351(9106):907.

Velangi SS, et al. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome after measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Dec;139(6):1122-3. No abstract available.PMID: 9990393; UI: 99144204.

Vijendra K. Singh, Sheren X. Lin, and Victor C. Yang, "Serological Association of Measles Virus and Human Herpesvirus-6 with Brain Autoantibodies in Autism," Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, Oct 1998, Vol. 89, No. 1, p 105-108. ["None of the autistic children in the study had measles in the past, but all had the MMR" stated David Whalgren.


Black S, et al.     Risk of hospitalization because of aseptic meningitis after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in one- to two-year-old children: an analysis of the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) Project. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997 May;16(5):500-3.
PMID: 9154545; UI: 97299143.
Belgamwar RB, et al.    Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Indian Med Assoc. 1997 Nov;95(11):594. No abstract available.PMID: 9567594; UI: 98229001.

Hazir T, et al.Stevens-Johnson syndrome following measles vaccination. JPMA J Pak Med Assoc. 1997 Oct;47(10):264-5. No abstract available.PMID: 9529856; UI: 98190761. [See Related Articles]
Montgomery SM, et al. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet. 1997 Dec 13;350(9093):1774. No abstract available.PMID: 9413482; UI: 98075403.[See Related Articles]

da Silveira CM, et al.   Measles vaccination and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Lancet. 1997 Jan 4;349(9044):14-6. PMID: 8988116; UI: 97141866.

Saijo M, et al (1997). [Central nervous system infection caused by mumps virus]. Nippon Rinsho. 1997 Apr;55(4):870-5. Review. Japanese.  PMID: 9103886; UI: 97257339.

Tsimaratos M, et al.    [Hemolytic and uremic syndrome after measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. Fortuitous association]?
Arch Pediatr. 1997 Dec;4(12):1261-2. French. No abstract available.PMID: 9538434; UI: 98199235.


Autret E, et al (1996). [Thrombocytopenic purpura after isolated or combined vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella]. Therapie. 1996 Nov-Dec;51(6):677-80. French. PMID: 9164004; UI: 97306737.

Autret E, et al (1996). [Aseptic meningitis after mumps vaccination]. Therapie. 1996 Nov-Dec;51(6):681-3. French. PMID: 9164005; UI: 97306738.

Cebria L, et al.     Acute pancreatitis caused by parotiditis vaccine. Pancreas. 1994 May;9(3):390-1. No abstract available.PMID: 8022764; UI: 94294352.
Chang SK, et al. Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following combined vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1996 Jan-Feb;9(1):53-5. No abstract available.PMID: 8770810; UI: 96366633.

Jonville-Bera AP, et al (1996). Thrombocytopenic purpura after measles, mumps and rubella vaccination: a retrospective survey by the French regional pharmacovigilance centres and pasteur-merieux serums et vaccins. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Jan;15(1):44-8. PMID: 8684875; UI: 6274272.

Knudsen KM, et al.   Child mortality following standard, medium or high titre measles immunization in West Africa. Int J Epidemiol. 1996 Jun;25(3):665-73. PMID: 8671571; UI: 96324880        [See Related Articles]
The combined analysis showed a decreased survival related to high titre measles vaccine compared with standard titre vaccines, though solely among females. As a result of these studies from West Africa and a study from Haiti, WHO has recommended that high titre measles vaccine no longer be used

Thompson, N.P(1996)., Montgomery, S.M.., Pounder, R.E., Wakefield, A.J., (29/4/96), Is Measles Vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?, The Lancet, Vol 345: 1071-1073.
Rebiere I (1995), Galy-Eyraud C Reseau National de Sante Publique, Saint-Maurice, France.. Estimation of the risk of aseptic meningitis associated with mumps vaccination, France, 1991-1993. Int J Epidemiol 1995 Dec;24(6):1223-7
Vlacha V, et al.    Recurrent thrombocytopenic purpura after repeated measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Pediatrics. 1996 May;97(5):738-9. No abstract available.PMID: 8628619; UI: 96206314.
MMWR (1996)Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 Jul 19;45(28):603-6. Measles pneumonitis following measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of a patient with HIV infection, 1993. PMID: 8676852; UI: 96312573.
This report summarizes the investigation of a case of progressive vaccine-associated measles pneumonitis in a person with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and provides interim recommendations for the use of measles-containing vaccine among HIV-infected persons.


Fescharek R, et al.    Transverse myelitis unlikely to be due to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. BMJ. 1995 Dec 16;311(7020):1642. No abstract available.PMID: 8555831; UI: 96111884.

Ueda K, et al (1995). Aseptic meningitis caused by measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in Japan. Lancet. 1995 Sep 9;346(8976):701-2. PMID: 7658837; UI: 95387790.

Jayarajan V, et al. Hearing loss following measles vaccination. J Infect. 1995 Mar;30(2):184-5. No abstract available.PMID: 7636291; UI: 95363215.[See Related Articles]

Joyce KA, et al.    Transverse myelitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. BMJ. 1995 Aug 12;311(7002):422. No abstract available.PMID: 7640590; UI: 95367940.
Plesner AM.  Gait disturbances after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Lancet. 1995 Feb 4;345(8945):316. No abstract available.PMID: 7837872; UI: 95139693.
Joyce KA, et al (1995). Transverse myelitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. BMJ. 1995 Aug 12;311(7002):422. PMID: 7640590; UI: 95367940.

Nussinovitch M, et al.  Arthritis after mumps and measles vaccination. Arch Dis Child. 1995 Apr;72(4):348-9. PMID: 7763072; UI: 95283345.
Riordan FA, et al.    Bacterial meningitis after MMR immunisation. Postgrad Med J. 1995 Dec;71(842):745-6. PMID: 8552541; UI: 96142748.
Ueda K, et al.   Aseptic meningitis caused by measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in Japan. Lancet. 1995 Sep 9;346(8976):701-2. No abstract available.PMID: 7658837; UI: 95387790.
Nussinovitch, M., Harel, L., Varsano, I., (1995), Arthritis after mumps and measles vaccination, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 72:348-349.

Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine carries a risk of joint symptoms particularly in children under 5 years. A boy who presented with an inflamed knee after measles and mumps vaccination is reported; synovial fluid aspirated from the joint contained 4.3X109/1 leukocytes. It is thought that the mumps component is the aetiological cause of acute monoarthritis.


Cebria L, et al (1994) Acute pancreatitis caused by parotiditis vaccine. Pancreas. 1994 May;9(3):390-1. No abstract available. PMID: 8022764; UI: 94294352.

Drachtman RA, et al.    Exacerbation of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following measles-mumps-rubella immunization. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994 Mar;148(3):326-7. No abstract available.PMID: 8130872; UI: 94177263.
Hassan W, Oldham R. Reiter’s syndrome and reactive arthritis in health care workers after vaccination. British Medical Journal 1994; 309: 94

Trotter AC, et al (1994) Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine administration in egg-sensitive children: systemic reactions during vaccine desensitization. Ann Allergy. 1994 Jan;72(1):25-8. PMID: 8291745; UI: 94121312. Department of Pediatrics, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.

Morris K, et al.      Guillain-Barre syndrome after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Lancet. 1994 Jan 1;343(8888):60. No abstract available.PMID: 7905077; UI: 94125719.
Rees J, et al.      Guillain-Barre syndrome after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Lancet. 1994 Mar 19;343(8899):733. No abstract available.PMID: 7907701; UI: 94180642.


Begg N.     Reporting of vaccine associated mumps meningitis. Arch Dis Child. 1993 Apr;68(4):526. No abstract available.PMID: 8503686; UI: 93277169.
Freeman TR, et al.  Illness after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. CMAJ. 1993 Dec 1;149(11):1669-74. PMID: 8242506; UI: 94061705.
Giampietro PG, et al.     Adverse reaction to measles immunization. Eur J Pediatr. 1993 Jan;152(1):80. No abstract available.PMID: 8444213; UI: 93185701.
Kwittken PL, et al.    MMR vaccine and neomycin allergy. Am J Dis Child. 1993 Feb;147(2):128-9. No abstract available.PMID: 8427228; UI: 93151210.
Kelso JM, et al.   Anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine mediated by IgE to gelatin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993 Apr;91(4):867-72. PMID: 8473675; UI: 93232477.

 Ramis Pedromingo M, et al (1993). [Pancreatitis following vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella in a young adult]. Aten Primaria. 1993 Feb 1;11(2):105. Spanish. No abstract available. PMID: 8452988; UI: 93200348.

 Stewart BJ, et al (1993). Reports of sensorineural deafness after measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. Arch Dis Child. 1993 Jul;69(1):153-4. PMID: 8024302; UI: 94296111.Community Health Offices, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford.

Rejjal AL, et al.   Thrombocytopenic purpura following measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1993;13(1):103-4. No abstract available.PMID: 7681639; UI: 93213086.
Ramis Pedromingo M, et al.     [Pancreatitis following vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella in a young adult]. Aten Primaria. 1993 Feb 1;11(2):105. Spanish. No abstract available.PMID: 8452988; UI: 93200348.
Tesovic G, et al.    Aseptic meningitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Lancet. 1993 Jun 12;341(8859):1541. No abstract available.PMID: 8099418; UI: 93280932.
Nieminen U, et al (1993) Acute thrombocytopenic purpura following measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. A report on 23 patients. Acta Paediatr. 1993 Mar;82(3):267-70. PMID: 8495082; UI: 93264730. Community Health Department, University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

 Miller E, (1993) Goldacre M, Pugh S, Colville A, Farrington P, Flower A, Nash J, MacFarlane L, Tettmar R. Risk of aseptic meningitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in UK children.Lancet 1993 Apr 17;341(8851):979-82. Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London.

Nieminen U, et al.    Acute thrombocytopenic purpura following measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. A report on 23 patients. Acta Paediatr. 1993 Mar;82(3):267-70. PMID: 8495082; UI: 93264730.
Olsen OF.   [Complications of MMR vaccinations]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1993 Jul 26;155(30):2359-60. Danish. No abstract available.PMID: 8346584; UI: 93348662.
Puvvada L, et al.   Systemic reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine skin testing. Pediatrics. 1993 Apr;91(4):835-6. No abstract available.PMID: 8464677; UI: 93219035.
Peltola H.  Mumps vaccination and meningitis. Lancet. 1993 Apr 17;341(8851):994-5. No abstract available.PMID: 8096949; UI: 93225701.

Kwittken PL, et al.    MMR vaccine and neomycin allergy. Am J Dis Child. 1993 Feb;147(2):128-9. No abstract available.PMID: 8427228; UI: 93151210.
Schmitt HJ, et al.  Withdrawal of a mumps vaccine: reasons and impacts. Eur J Pediatr. 1993 May;152(5):387-8. No abstract available.PMID: 8319700; UI: 93307315.
Sackey AH, et al.    Hemiplegia after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. BMJ. 1993 May 1;306(6886):1169. No abstract available.PMID: 8499819; UI: 93271756.

Wiersbitzky S, et al.  [Leukemoid reaction or leukosis after MMR preventive vaccination]. Kinderarztl Prax. 1993 May;61(3):118-9. German. No abstract available.PMID: 8326701; UI: 93316529.
Wiersbitzky S, et al.  [Increased risk of invasive bacterial infections after preventive mumps-measles-rubella vaccination]? Kinderarztl Prax. 1993 Jun;61(4-5):170-1. German. No abstract available.PMID: 8361148; UI: 93368098.
Wiersbitzky S, et al.    [Exanthema with high fever and cerebral seizure susceptibility after mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) preventive vaccination]? Kinderarztl Prax. 1993 Aug;61(6):227-8. German. No abstract available.PMID: 8105135; UI: 94017413.


Toraldo, R, et al, "Effect of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination on Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Functions in Children", Acta Paediatr, 1992 Nov; 81(11):887-890.

Malengreau, M, "Reappearance of Post-Vaccination Infection of Measles, Rubella, and Mumps. Should Adolescents be re-vaccinated?" Pedaitric, 1992;47 (9):597-601 (25 ref)

[No authors listed]    Meningitis associated with measles-mumps-rubella vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1992 Oct 9;67(41):301-2. English; French. No abstract available.PMID: 1390049; UI: 93002251.
 Benjamin CM, et al (1992) Joint and limb symptoms in children after immunisation with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. BMJ. 1992 Apr 25;304(6834):1075-8. PMID: 1586818; UI: 92266077.

Colville A, et al. Mumps meningitis and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Lancet. 1992 Sep 26;340(8822):786. No abstract available.PMID: 1356189; UI: 92408361.
Fasano MB, et al.  Egg hypersensitivity and adverse reactions to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. J Pediatr. 1992 Jun;120(6):878-81. PMID: 1593346; UI: 92277197.
Forsey T, et al.    Mumps vaccines and meningitis. Lancet. 1992 Oct 17;340(8825):980. No abstract available.PMID: 1357388; UI: 93023309.
Howson CP, et al. Chronic arthritis after rubella vaccination. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;15(2):307-12. Review. PMID: 1520764; UI: 92392957

Kalet A, et al.       Allergic reactions to MMR vaccine. Pediatrics. 1992 Jan;89(1):168-9. No abstract available.PMID: 1728009; UI: 92093480.
Kim TM, et al.  Delayed acute measles inclusion body encephalitis in a 9-year-old girl: ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization studies. Mod Pathol. 1992 May;5(3):348-52. PMID: 1353879; UI: 92357667.
Skovrankova J, et al.   [Neurologic disorders after vaccination against measles and mumps]. Cesk Pediatr. 1992 Jun;47(6):343-5. Czech. PMID: 1525918; UI: 92405299.
Wiersbitzky S, et al.    [Encephalitis, meningitis serosa and parotitis after MMR preventive vaccination? The Pediatric Vaccination Counseling Unit]. Kinderarztl Prax. 1992 Oct;60(7):203-5. German. No abstract available.PMID: 1359186; UI: 93060684.
Wiersbitzky S, et al. [Acute gastroenteritis and acute obstructive bronchitis after mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) preventive vaccination? The Pediatric Vaccination Counseling Service]. Kinderarztl Prax. 1992 Dec;60(9-10):302-3. German. No abstract available.PMID: 1289650; UI: 93172702.
Wiersbitzky S, et al.     [Thrombocytopenic purpura following immunization with a live vaccine (mumps-measles-rubella vaccination)]? Kinderarztl Prax. 1992 Feb;60(1):28-9. German. No abstract available.
PMID: 1556850; UI: 92211905.


Adler JB, et al. Pancreatitis caused by measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Pancreas. 1991 Jul;6(4):489-90. PMID: 1876605; UI: 91343586.    
Acute pancreatitis may result from viral infections, including mumps, coxsackie B, Epstein-Barr, and varicella. However, viral pancreatitis has not been reported after immunization with viral vaccines. We report the occurrence of acute pancreatitis in an adult who had received measles, mumps, and rubella II vaccine (MMR II).
Benjamin CM, et al.    Adverse reactions and mumps, measles and rubella vaccine. J Public Health Med. 1991 Feb;13(1):32-4. No abstract available.PMID: 2029434; UI: 91229922.
Chen RT, et al.    Adverse events following measles-mumps-rubella and measles vaccinations in college students.Vaccine. 1991 May;9(5):297-9. PMID: 1872012; UI: 91335848    
Garenne M, et al.     Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. Lancet. 1991 Oct 12;338(8772):903-7. PMID: 1681265; UI: 92016868.
Child mortality after immunisation was significantly higher in the two groups which received high-titre vaccines than in the group given the standard vaccine. The relative risk of death was 1.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.74; p = 0.007) in the EZ-HT group and 1.51 (0.97-2.34; p = 0.07) in the SW-HT group compared with the standard group. The three vaccine groups were comparable as regards various social, family, and health characteristics, and there was no difference in mortality between children who received the standard vaccine and those who were eligible for the trial but did not take part for various reasons. The higher risk of death in the two high-titre vaccine groups remained significant in multivariate analyses. These findings suggest a need to reconsider the use of high-titre measles vaccines early in life in less developed countries.
Griffin MR, et al.  Risk of seizures after measles-mumps-rubella immunization. Pediatrics. 1991 Nov;88(5):881-5. PMID: 1945626; UI: 92051053.
Koga K, et al (1991) [Bilateral acute profound deafness after MMR vaccination--report of a case]. Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 1991 Aug;94(8):1142-5. Japanese. PMID: 1960595; UI: 92071796.
Fujinaga T, et al. (1991) A prefecture-wide survey of mumps meningitis associated with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Mar;10(3):204-9. PMID: 2041667; UI: 91252105.
Fujinaga T, et al. (1991) A prefecture-wide survey of mumps meningitis associated with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Mar;10(3):204-9. PMID: 2041667; UI: 91252105.
Strauss, J et al, "Loss of Maternal Measles Antibodies Acquired By Vaccination Against Measles," Cesk epidemiol Mikrobiol Immunol, May 1991, 40(3):137-143.
Koga K, et al.     [Bilateral acute profound deafness after MMR vaccination--report of a case]. Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 1991 Aug;94(8):1142-5. Japanese. PMID: 1960595; UI: 92071796.
Lyons R, et al.   Pain and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. Arch Dis Child. 1991 Mar;66(3):346-7. PMID: 2025015; UI: 91221680.
Sugiura A, et al.       Aseptic meningitis as a complication of mumps vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Mar;10(3):209-13.
PMID: 2041668; UI: 91252106.
Maguire HC, et al.  Meningoencephalitis associated with MMR vaccine. CDR (Lond Engl Rev). 1991 May 24;1(6):R60-1. No abstract available.PMID: 1688304; UI: 94138451.
Mori I, et al.(1991) [Virological evaluation of mumps meningitis following vaccination against mumps]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1991 Feb;65(2):226-33. Japanese. PMID: 2066606; UI: 91294602.
Pawlowski B, et al.   [Mumps vaccination and type-I diabetes]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1991 Apr 19;116(16):635. German. No abstract available.PMID: 2015783; UI: 91199936.
Wiersbitzky S, et al.    ["Vaccination encephalopathy after measles vaccination simulating recurrent cardiovascular dysregulation?" The pediatric vaccination counseling unit]. Kinderarztl Prax. 1991 Jun;59(6):187-8. German. No abstract available.PMID: 1681130; UI: 92016158.
Wiersbitzky S, et al. [Febrile exanthema following measles vaccination--risk of recurrence in the 2d measles vaccination]? Kinderarztl Prax. 1991 Dec;59(12):384-5. German. No abstract available.PMID: 1774855; UI: 92130378.[See Related


  Ehrengut W.      Central nervous system sequelae of immunization against measles, mumps, rubella and poliomyelitis. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1990 Feb;32(1):8-11. No abstract available.PMID: 2109492; UI: 90224612.
Furesz J, et al.   Vaccine-related mumps meningitis--Canada. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1990 Dec 15;16(50):253-4. English; French. No abstract available.PMID: 2285950; UI: 91138119.
Halsey N.      Risk of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis from measles vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990 Nov;9(11):857-8. No abstract available.PMID: 2263442; UI: 91088240.
von Muhlendahl KE.   Side-effects of measles-mumps vaccination. Lancet. 1990 Mar 3;335(8688):540-1. No abstract available.PMID: 1968550; UI: 90173570.
Watson JG.   A child of 3 years who developed an encephalitic reaction to MMR (mumps, measles, rubella) immunisation at age 15 months. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1990 Jun;19(2):189-90. No abstract available.PMID: 2373602; UI:


Begg NT, et al.    Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination and encephalitis. BMJ. 1989 Oct 14;299(6705):978. No abstract available.PMID: 2553173; UI: 90029090.
Campbell AG.     Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination and encephalitis. BMJ. 1989 Oct 7;299(6704):916. No abstract available.PMID: 2510888; UI: 90057796.
Cizman M, et al.     Aseptic meningitis after vaccination against measles and mumps. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 May;8(5):302-8. PMID: 2726323; UI: 89263453.
Crowley S, et al.  Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination and encephalitis. BMJ. 1989 Sep 9;299(6700):660. No abstract available.PMID: 2572289; UI: 90028978.        
Gray JA, et al.     Mumps meningitis following measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. Lancet. 1989 Jul 8;2(8654):98. No abstract available.PMID: 2567888; UI: 89294867.
Gray JA, et al.      Mumps meningitis after mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination. BMJ. 1989 Dec 9;299(6713):1464-5. No abstract available.PMID: 2514842; UI: 90123330.
Koskiniemi M, et al.     Effect of measles, mumps, rubella vaccination on pattern of encephalitis in children. Lancet. 1989 Jan 7;1(8628):31-4. PMID: 2563011; UI: 89096098.
Nalin DR.      Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination and encephalitis. BMJ. 1989 Nov 11;299(6709):1219. No abstract available.PMID: 2574604; UI: 90089702  

McDonald JC, et al.Clinical and epidemiologic features of mumps meningoencephalitis and possible vaccine-related disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 Nov;8(11):751-5. PMID: 2594449; UI: 90082602.
Murray MW, et al. Mumps meningitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. Lancet. 1989 Sep 16;2(8664):677. No abstract available.PMID: 2570924; UI: 89383684.
No authors listed]    Mumps meningitis following measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. Lancet. 1989 Aug 12;2(8659):394-5. No abstract available.PMID: 2569586; UI: 89343382.
[No authors listed] Mumps meningitis and MMR vaccination. Lancet. 1989 Oct 28;2(8670):1015-6. Review. No abstract available.PMID: 2572742; UI: 90042705.
von Muhlendahl KE (1989). [Side effects and complications of measles-mumps vaccination]. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1989 Aug;137(8):440-6. Review. German. PMID: 2682212; UI: 90043725.


Azeemuddin S (1987). Thrombocytopenia purpura after combined vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1987 Jun;26(6):318. No abstract available. PMID: 3581644; UI: 87216801.
De Benedetto F.      [Postvaccinal measles]. Minerva Pediatr. 1987 Oct 31;39(20):863-4. Italian. No abstract available.PMID: 3437878; UI: 88142731.
Thurston A.    Anaphylactic shock reaction to measles vaccine. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1987 Jan;37(294):41. No abstract available.PMID: 3668928; UI: 88035790.   

Nabe-Nielsen J, et al. Unilateral total deafness as a complication of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Scand Audiol Suppl. 1988;30:69-70. PMID: 3227284; UI: 89145980


No authors listed]   A case of mumps meningitis: a complication of vaccination? CMAJ. 1988 Jan 15;138(2):135. No abstract available.PMID: 3334926; UI: 88079743.


Azeemuddin S.    Thrombocytopenia purpura after combined vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1987 Jun;26(6):318. No abstract available.PMID: 3581644; UI: 87216801.


Brodsky, Stanievich, "Sensorineural Hearing Loss Following Live Measles Virus Vaccination", Int J Ped Oto, 1985 Nov; 10(2):159-163

Marshall GS, et al.   Diffuse retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. Pediatrics. 1985 Dec;76(6):989-91. No abstract available.PMID: 4069871; UI: 86066958.

Marshall GS, et al (1985) Diffuse retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. Pediatrics. 1985 Dec;76(6):989-91. No abstract available. PMID: 4069871; UI: 86066958.


  [No authors listed]     [Polyradiculitis associated with vaccination against measles, parotitis and rubella]. Lakartidningen. 1984 Apr 18;81(16):1636-7. Swedish. No abstract available.PMID: 6717184; UI: 84190197.
Jorch G, et al.  [Coincidence of virus encephalitis and measles-mumps vaccination]. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1984 May;132(5):299-300. German. PMID: 6146928; UI: 84270405.


Berlin BS.   Convulsions after measles immunisation. Lancet. 1983 Jun 18;1(8338):1380. No abstract available.PMID: 6134152; UI: 83217955.

White F.    Measles vaccine associated encephalitis in Canada. Lancet. 1983 Sep 17;2(8351):683-4. No abstract available.PMID: 6136823; UI: 83296456.  
Miller CL. Convulsions after measles vaccination. Lancet. 1983 Jul 23;2(8343):215. No abstract available.PMID: 6135043; UI: 83243659.[See Related Articles]

Neiderud J.  Thrombocytopenic purpura after a combined vaccine against morbilli, parotitis and rubella. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983 Jul;72(4):613-4. No abstract available.PMID: 6684869; UI: 84020310.


Isozaki M, et al.     Effects and side effects of a new trivalent combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1982 Sep;7(5):547-50. PMID: 7182947; UI: 83224655.


Rietschel RL, et al. Neomycin sensitivity and the MMR vaccine. JAMA. 1981 Feb 13;245(6):571. No abstract available.PMID: 7452881; UI: 81096863.
Aukrust L, et al.    Severe hypersensitivity or intolerance reactions to measles vaccine in six children. Clinical and immunological studies. Allergy. 1980 Oct;35(7):581-7. PMID: 7468944; UI: 81131462. 


Allerdist, H, "Neurological Complications Following Measles Vaccination", Inter Symp, Brussels, 1978, Development Biol Std, Vol 43, 259-264.

Allerdist, H, "Neurological Complications Following Measles Virus Vaccination. Evaluation of the Cases seen Between 1971-1977", Monatsschr Kinderheilkd, Jan 1979, 127(1): 23-28.
Buntain WL, et al.   Letter: Local subcutaneous atrophy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. Am J Dis Child. 1976 Mar;130(3):335. No abstract available.PMID: 1258842; UI: 76158051.

Cho CT, et al. Panencephalitis following measles vaccination. JAMA. 1973 May 28;224(9):1299. No abstract available.PMID: 4739905; UI: 73173566.[See Related Articles]
Dietzsch HJ, et al.[Central nervous complications following measles vaccination]. Dtsch Gesundheitsw. 1976 Dec 4;31(52):2489-91. German. No abstract available.PMID: 1009851; UI: 77090697. [See Related Articles]

Healy, "Mumps Vaccine and Nerve Deafness", Am J Disorder Child, 1972 Jun; 123(6):612

Wilkins and Wehrle, "Additional Evidence Against Measles Vaccine Administration to Infants Less than 12 months of Age: Altered Immune Response Following Active- Passive Immunization, Jour Ped, 1979, Vol 94, p 865-869.

Gunderman JR (1973). Guillain-Barre syndrome. Occurrence following combined mumps-rubella vaccine. Am J Dis Child. 1973 Jun;125(6):834-5. No abstract available. PMID: 4350682; UI: 73187935. Schiff P. Modern trends in immunization. Med J Aust. 1973 Mar 17;1(11):551-7. Review. No abstract available.PMID: 4573119; UI: 73164575.
"46% of individuals who were vaccinated with live vaccine following a course of killed measles vaccine developed erythema and induration at the site of the injection."

Grose C, et al. Guillain-Barre syndrome following administration of live measles vaccine.  Am J Med. 1976 Mar;60(3):441-3. PMID: 1258890; UI: 76158140.

Jagdis F, et al.  Encephalitis after administration of live measles vaccine. Can Med Assoc J. 1975 Apr 19;112(8):972-5. PMID: 236821; UI: 75166215.
Kuzemko JA.Measles vaccination and the nephrotic syndrome. Br Med J. 1972 Dec 16;4(841):665-6. No abstract available.PMID: 4264883; UI: 73073995. [See Related Articles]
Kazarian EL, et al.     Optic neuritis complicating measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978 Oct;86(4):544-7. PMID: 707601; UI: 79039497.
Konichi SR, et al.    [Side effects of the use of the preventive mixed mumps, rubella and measles vaccine inchildren of the City of Sao Paulo]. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1973 May-Jun;15(3):161-4. Portugese. No abstract available.PMID: 4732747; UI: 73258358.

Landrigan PJ, et al (1973). Neurologic disorders following live measles-virus vaccination. JAMA. 1973 Mar 26;223(13):1459-62. PMID: 4196154; UI: 73180462.

Modlin, JF (1977), Jabbour, JT, Witte, JJ, Halsey, NA; Epidemiologic Studies of measles, measles vaccine, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis; Pediatrics, Vol 59; No. 4; April 1977

Abstract: Histories obtained in 350 of 375 clinically confirmed cases of SSPE reported to a national registry showed that 292 patients had measles and 58 had no history of measles. Forty of the latter patients received live, attenuated measles virus vaccine. In patients with a history of measles, measles illness occurred before age 2 years in 46%, and a mean of 7.0 years before onset of SSPE. In contrast, there was no relationship of SSPE with age at vaccination in 35 of 40 patients historically associated with measles vaccine and SSPE occurred a mean of 3.3 years after vaccination. Based on estimated national measles morbidity data and national measles vaccine distribution data, the risk of SSPE following measles vaccination (0.5 to 1.1 cases/106) appears to be less than the risk following measles (5.2 to 9.7 cases/106 ). Because live measles vaccine is highly effective in preventing measles illness and a high proportion of children in the US have received measles vaccine, these data are consistent with the observed downward trend in SSPE incidence since 1969.

Munyer, et al, "Depressed Lymphocyte Function after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination", Jour Infection Disorder, vol 132, No 1, July 1975, p 75-80.
Sinaniotis, et al, "Diabetes Mellitus after Mumps Vaccination", Arc Dis Child, 1975, 50:749.66


[No authors listed]     A measles vaccine withdrawn. Br Med J. 1969 Mar 29;1(647):794-5. No abstract available.PMID: 4388139; UI: 69134745.
Niv M.      Mumps vaccine: possible reaction. Pediatrics. 1969 Jul;44(1):146. No abstract available.PMID: 5795397; UI: 69237691.
Barbor PR, et al.  Encephalitis after measles vaccination. Lancet. 1969 Jul 5;2(7610):55-6. No abstract available.PMID: 4182814; UI: 69218681.       


Galili S.A mild form of Stevens-Johnson syndrome following measles vaccination. Isr J Med Sci. 1967 Nov-Dec;3(6):903-5. No abstract available.PMID: 5587583; UI: 68271750. [See Related Articles]
Chandra RK.     Reactions following measles vaccination. Indian J Pediatr. 1967 Nov;34(238):423-4. No abstract available.PMID: 5594847; UI: 68359970.      

Nedar P R, and Warren, R J, "Reported Neurological Disorders Following Live Measles Vaccine", 1968, Ped, 41:997-1001.

Trump, R C, White, T R, "Cerebellar Ataxia Presumed Due To Live Attenuated Measles Virus Vaccine," JAMA, 1967, 199:165-166.

Oski and Naiman, "Effect of Live Measles Vaccine on the Platelet Count", NEJM, Aug 18, 1966, p 352-356.
Cherkeziia SE (1979), Mikhailova GR, Gorshunova LP. [Disorders in the murine chromosome apparatus induced by immunization with a complex of antiviral vaccines]. Vopr Virusol 1979 Sep-Oct;(5):547-50 [Article in Russian]
Immunization of mice with a number of live virus vaccines (poliovaccine, smallpox vaccine, measles vaccine) given consecutively at 14-day intervals resulted in increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of the animals after the completion of the entire vaccination course (14 and 30 days after the last vaccination). Measles vaccine and, particularly, smallpox vaccine exert a significant harmful effect on the karyotype of the bone marrow cells. The effect on the chromosomes of the vaccines given consecutively differs somewhat from the individual effect of each of them.

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