Gary Matsumoto
[back] Anthrax vaccine   [back] Gulf War Syndrome

Author photo by Lia Chang Gary Matsumoto, a journalist based in New York City, has reported from thirty-two different countries on five continents, covered two wars and five popular uprisings, and won ten journalism awards. He has been the London Bureau Manager and Chief Foreign Correspondent for NBC Radio News; a National Correspondent for NBC's Weekend Today Show and Senior Correspondent for the Fox News Channel. As a broadcaster, he has covered events ranging from the toppling of the Communist Party in Eastern Europe to Desert Storm, the Tiananmen Square massacre to the death of Princess Diana. He has written about the anthrax letter attacks for the Washington Post and Science magazine. His 1998 article in Vanity Fair was the first to draw the connection between the anthrax vaccine and Gulf War Syndrome.



[2009 July] Swine Flu Shot May Rely on Emergency Use of Additives

See: Squalene  Anthrax vaccine

Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment That's Killing Our Soldiers and Why GIs Are Only the First Victims By Gary Matsumoto

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The British press baron, Lord Northcliffe once said that journalism is "what somebody somewhere wants suppressed; the rest is just advertising." I wrote VACCINE A in the belief that information about the toxicity of squalene has been systematically ignored, if not suppressed, while we preoccupy ourselves with latest on Michael Jackson and Jessica Simpson. These days, journalism busies itself with what Lord Northcliffe would probably dismiss as advertising; celebrity coverage, for instance, is a form of advertising, I think. Celebrities are a kind of brand, a commodity that is mass marketed through stories on shows like Access Hollywood, The Today Show, Good Morning America, Dateline, 20/20 and 60 Minutes. Such stories build "brand awareness" for "commodities" like Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes, Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie. Brand awareness of Tom Cruise sells tickets to War of the Worlds; publicizing the Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie brands boosts the box office for Mr and Mrs Smith, and so on. Seen in this light, publicity is advertising. And, in all fairness to the shows that air celebrity stories, the public has an insatiable appetite for them.

"Tri-Mix" or "Triple Mix" was the U.S. Army designation in the late 1980s for the squalene emulsion adjuvant now sold by Corixa under the commercial name Ribi Adjuvant System or RAS. Scientists at Fort Detrick began working with this emulsion "vehicle" in 1987 (NIH scientists had been working with squalene emulsions since the late 1970s). As I report in Chapter Three of my book, by 1989 - a year before Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm - Army scientists believed they had succeeded in creating a new, faster-acting anthrax vaccine that induced the same amount of immunity in guinea pigs with one shot of the new vaccine as did three shots of the licensed vaccine.
    The new vaccine was formulated with Tri-Mix adjuvant as well as De-Tox and Syntex Adjuvant Formula I (which were emulsified in either squalene or its more stable, hydrogenated form, squalane). The chief pharmaceutical ingredient in the new vaccine was a more highly purified protective antigen (PA) protein, or fragments or "sub-units" of PA. In parallel research, Fort Detrick also constructed various "chimeras" - genetic engineered hybrid microbes that would biosynthesize protective antigen without any trace of the other two anthrax toxin proteins.
    Theoretically, this would make the new vaccine less "reactogenic" (less likely to induce unpleasant side effects), but it also made it weaker. Previous data from military scientists in both the United States and Britain had already shown that the immune system responded to a wide array of Bacillus anthracis components: all three toxin proteins (PA, LF and EF), to structures called "epitopes" found on the anthrax capsule, the surface of anthrax vegetative cells and the surface of spores.
    By design, all of these epitopes were missing from the new vaccine, which was less reactogenic but, predictably, less immunogenic. It required a new and more powerful adjuvant: one of the new generation oil emulsions. Around 1994, Fort Detrick concluded that the non-spore forming Delta Sterne variant of Bacillus anthracis made the most efficient platform for making recombinant protective antigen, now called rPA102.
    Protective antigen made from this system was emulsified principally with MF59 - an adjuvant made from squalene in water, but without a bacterial component. In 1998, the British scientists at the Center for Applied Microbiological Research at Porton Down adopted the formula for the U.S. "second generation" anthrax vaccine, but added the Ribi Adjuvant System (the old Triple-Mix adjuvant) instead of MF59. According to relatively recent briefings given by Col Arthur Friedlander (U.S. Army, ret.) to senior military officers, Fort Detrick has continued to study the effects of rPA102 when combined with Tri-Mix/RAS, Syntex Adjuvant Formula and MF59.
    Army scientists are still testing rPA102 with alum (the only vaccine adjuvant licensed in the U.S. for human use), Walter Reed Liposomes (made with cholesterol, and sometimes with squalene and monophosphoryl Lipid A), and QS-21. The NIH-approved clinical trials with rPA102 are with alum only. The anti-squalene antibodies in retired and active duty military personnel are evidence that the Army has been acquiring safety and efficacy data for the new vaccine, combined with squalene emulsion adjuvants, by ethically dubious means. All this, and a lot more, is recounted in the book in much greater detail. Please read the whole book, not just parts of it, to fully understand the basis of the very serious charge that the Department of Defense has been conducting covert medical experiments on troops to "fast track" its new anthrax vaccine.

Since those early discussions with Craig and Bob, many military personnel have reported developing DVTs following anthrax vaccination. Some military medical specialists are tracking this. Since 1998, when the Department of Defense began administering anthrax vaccine lots proven to be tainted by nanodoses of squalene, many service members have reported developing post-vaccination autoimmune vasculitis, Churg's Strauss syndrome, endocarditis, myocarditis, collagen vascular disease, cardiomyopathy, polyarteritis nodosa and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Most of these adverse reactions are listed on the package insert for Biothrax (the licensed human anthrax vaccine). However, as NBC's Craig White reported to me, as have military personnel, the military draws anthrax vaccine in the field from multi-dose aliquots that do not come with a package insert for service members to read. Secret adjuvant in new avian flu vaccine 

I discuss the British findings, briefly, in Chapter Twelve, pg 250. A highly regarded British laboratory, Scientific Analyses Ltd. (SAL Ltd.) in Manchester, tested samples of British-made anthrax vaccine for the Granada Television network and found a thirty-six parts per billion concentration of squalene in two lots of the British vaccine. That is a fairly close match for the concentration found in one of the five lots confirmed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to contain squalene. Lot #FAV 043, according to the FDA, contained forty parts per billion. What is also noteworthy is the specific test used by SAL Ltd. to detect squalene in anthrax vaccine: flame ionization/gas chromatography. This is the same test used by the FDA. Interestingly, a laboratory the U.S. Army sub-contracted to test the vaccine, SRI, used a much less sensitive analysis called liquid chromatography, which would have been incapable of finding squalene in the concentrations present in either the U.S. or British anthrax vaccines. SRI has a long business association with the Department of Defense and an unanswered question is whether SRI deliberately chose to use a test that would invariably fail to find low concentrations squalene in the vaccine and thus allow the U.S. Department of Defense to declare its anthrax vaccine squalene-free, which it did. Gary Matsumoto

For the past half century, peer-reviewed scientific research has documented how animals injected with oil-based adjuvants develop a variety of hypersensitive (allergic) and autoimmune diseases. They also develop cysts. This has also proven true in humans. In the 1960s, nearly a million people in England were immunized with an influenza vaccine containing an oil based adjuvant. I believe the oil was mineral oil. The manufacturer voluntarily withdrew the vaccine from the market when approximately 40 patients developed sterile (non-infectious) cysts that in some cases had to be surgically removed. I am unaware of any research showing how quickly cysts can develop after immunization with an oil adjuvant.
    .....Military personnel injected with anthrax vaccine containing squalene have been reporting that they developed cysts, appearing all over their bodies. Among the first to report this were Air Force personnel at Dover Air Force Based in Delaware, which had received at least four lots of anthrax vaccine containing squalene. One fellow developed cysts all over his body, including his pericardium. Another fellow developed them on his spinal cord. These cysts were similar to those in British civilians injected with the flu vaccine containing mineral oil, because they were "sterile" - they were not associated with viral or bacterial infection. [2006] Formation of Cysts from Squalene Adjuvant?

GSK's proprietary adjuvant is called ASO4. It contains alum and MPL. MPL stands for monophosphoryl lipid A. The U.S. Army's proprietary (unlicensed) adjuvant developed prior to the first Gulf War for use in a second generation anthrax vaccine was called Tri-Mix or Triple Mix. Tri-Mix contained MPL (monophosphoryl lipid A) and squalene. After the war, Army scientists considered MPL to be too toxic, so they began working with Chiron Corporation of Emeryville, CA to develop an adjuvant that contained squalene and water only ... on the assumption that adjuvant toxicity with Tri-Mix was due to MPL. This assumption also proved incorrect. There are more than two dozen animal studies that generated data demonstrating squalene's ability to induce autoimmunity; and there is disputed evidence that nanodoses of squalene in anthrax vaccine sickened countless military personnel who received squalene-tainted vaccine during AVIP.
    Back to ASO4 and MPL. MPL was also a component of the Ribi Adjuvant System ( I haven't checked whether it still is). The Ribi Adjuvant System, or RAS, is a derivative of Tri-Mix, which is approved for use in animals only.
    As far as I know, there is no existing data showing whether MPL elicits an immune response specific to it. If MPL is immunogenic, it raises the possibility of a dangerous "cross reaction." The human body is full of lipids. Antibodies and immune cells responding to MPL might also respond to other lipids in the body, thus breaking tolerance for endogenous lipids (those native to the human body) and initiating autoimmunity. Secret adjuvant in new avian flu vaccine